Acroceridae -- a/o cat.

Australasian/Oceanian Diptera Catalog -- Web Version

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[Originally] by Evert I. Schlinger & Michael G. Jefferies

The family Acroceridae (Cyrtidae olim) is cosmopolitan, except for true oceanic islands, and contains 520 species in 3 subfamilies and 50 genera. Members of all 3 subfamilies occur in these regions, though most species have a quite limited distribution. The Philopotinae and Acrocerinae are represented here by only 1 genus each. In contrast, the most primitive subfamily, Panopinae, has 7 genera reported. Panops is recorded here only from Australia, however, Osten Sacken (1881a) lists an undetermined species from New Guinea. Endemicity in the family is 100% for species and 77% for genera in these areas. Altogether, 52 valid species in 10 genera and subgenera are listed.

All known species are internal parasitoids of true spiders (Araneae). They are either solitary or gregarious, with up to 14 larvae occurring per spider. Acrocerid eggs are tiny (microtype) and are usually deposited in high numbers (up to 5,000 per female). Eggs may be laid in flight (as in Eulonchus Gerstaecker), deposited on dead twigs (Ogcodes), on grass stems (Acrocera Meigen), or on tree trunks (some Pterodontia), but always away from the intended hosts. The 1st instar planidium actively seeks out and burrows inside the spider. There are 4 instars. The mature larva usually emerges posteriorly from the spider's epigastric furrow area. It pupates free from the host inside a protective webbing prepared by the spider before its death. The life span of the short lived, adult acrocerids ranges from 1 (commonly) to 6 (rarely) weeks. Mating occurs in flight or on dead twigs (Ogcodes) or at flowers (Eulonchus), usually from 1 to 2 days after emergence. Adults of Leucopsina, Mesophysa, Panops, and Helle are active nectar (flower) feeders. Adults of Ogcodes, Pterodontia, and Neopanops have small or mostly nonfunctional mouthparts and must be carefully looked for in meadows, forests, or other vegetated areas. Little is known about the biology and host relationships of acrocerid flies from these regions although Maskell (1888), Dumbleton (1941), and Plomley (1947a,b) figured and discussed several species of Ogcodes. Humphreys (1976) discussed parasitism by Pterodontia and Ogcodes. Schlinger (1987) reviewed the biology and host relationships of the Acroceridae of the world, including new records for these regions.
Refs.: Miller (1950, cat. NZ spp.), Paramonov (1955a, 1957e, rev. Australian spp.), Schlinger (1960, rev. world Ogcodes; 1981, world family characteristics; 1987, world biol., host relationships), Neboiss (1971, rev. Australian Panopinae).


Genus APSONA Westwood

APSONA Westwood, 1876b: 510. Type species: Apsona muscaria Westwood, 1876, mon.
APSOMA, error for Apsona.
muscaria Westwood, 1876b: 510. "Nov Zelandi ."

Genus LEUCOPSINA Westwood

LEUCOPSINA Westwood, 1876b: 510. Type species: Leucopsina odyneroides Westwood, 1876, mon.
burnsi Paramonov, 1957e: 529 (Panops flavipes var.). Australia (Vic).
odyneroides Westwood, 1876b: 510. "Nov Hollandi ," [= Australia (NSW); see Paramonov, 1957e: 525]; Australia (Vic).

Genus MESOPHYSA Macquart

MESOPHYSA Macquart, 1838b: 166 [1839b: 282]. Type species: Mesophysa scapularis Macquart, 1838 [= Panops flavipes Latreille, 1812], des. Brunetti, 1926: 580.
flavipes Latreille in Olivier, 1812: 710 (Panops). Australia (NSW) [neotype locality]; Australia (Qld).
     scapularis Macquart, 1838b: 167 [1839b: 283]. "Patrie inconnue" [= Australia].
ilzei Neboiss, 1971: 218. Australia (Vic); Australia (NSW).
tenaria Neboiss, 1971: 218. Australia (ACT); Australia (NSW, Vic).
ultima Neboiss, 1971: 219. Australia (Qld); Australia (NSW).

Genus NEOPANOPS Schlinger

NEOPANOPS Schlinger, 1959: 157. Type species: Neopanops boharti Schlinger, 1959, orig. des.
boharti Schlinger, 1959: 157. Indonesia (Irian Jaya).

Genus PANOPS Lamarck

PANOPS Lamarck, 1804: 263. Type species: Panops baudini Lamarck, 1804, mon.
EPICERINA Macquart, 1850: 410(97). Type species: Epicerina nigricornis Macquart, 1850, mon.
PANOCALDA Neboiss, 1971: 212. Type species: Panocalda grossi Neboiss, 1971, orig. des.
aurum Winterton, 2012: 24. Australia (WA).
austrae Neboiss, 1971: 209. Australia (NT); Australia (WA).
baudini Lamarck, 1804: 265. Australia (NSW) [neotype locality]; Australia (Qld, Tas, Vic, WA).
     marginata Macquart, 1838b: 168 [1839b: 284] (Mesophysa). "Patrie inconnue" [= Australia].
     nigricornis Macquart, 1850: 402(98) (Epicerina). Australia (Tas) & "côte orientale."
     australiae Thomson, 1869: 475 (Mesophysa). Australia (NSW).
     lamarckianus Westwood, 1876b: 508 (Panops). Australia (NSW).
     lamarkanus, error for lamarkianus.
boharti Winterton, 2012: 34. Indonesia (Irian Jaya).
conspicuus Brunetti, 1926: 579 (Epicerna). Australia (WA); Australia (Qld, Vic).
danielsi Winteron, 2012: 40. Austrlaia (Qld).
grossi Neboiss, 1971: 214 (Panocalda). Australia (NT).
jade Winteron, 2012: 45. Austrlaia (Qld).
schlingeri Winteron, 2012: 48. Austrlaia (NT).


PTERODONTIA Gray in Griffith & Pidgeon, 1832: 779. Type species: Pterodontia flavipes Gray, 1832, mon.
NOTHRA Westwood, 1876b: 515. Type species: Nothra bicolor Westwood, 1876 [= Pterodontia mellii Erichson, 1840], mon.
davisi Paramonov, 1957e: 531. Australia (NSW); Australia (Qld).
longisquama Sabrosky, 1947b: 74. PNG (PNG).
mellii Erichson, 1840: 163. Australia (NSW); Australia (ACT, Qld, SA, Vic, WA).
     macquarti Westwood, 1848b: 97 (unnec. n. n. for flavipes Macquart).
     bicolor Westwood, 1876b: 515 (Nothra). "Nov Hollandi ."
     flavipes, Macquart, 1838, not Gray, 1832, misid.
     melli, error for mellii.
variegata White, 1914b: 68. Australia (Tas).


Genus HELLE Osten Sacken

HELLE Osten Sacken, 1896: 16. Type species: Acrocera longirostris Hudson, 1892, orig. des.
longirostris Hudson, 1892: 56, pl. vii, fig. 4 (Acrocera). NZ (NZ).
rufescens Brunetti, 1926: 572. NZ (NZ).
     megalyboides Brunetti, 1926: 573. NZ (NZ).

Genus SCHLINGERIELLA Gillung & Winterton

SCHLINGERIELLA Gillung & Winterton, 2012: 22. Type species: Schlingeriella irwini Gillung & Winterton, orig. des.
irwini Gillung & Winterton, 2012: 23. New Caledonia (New Caledonia).


Genus OGCODES Latreille

OGCODES Latreille, 1796: 154. Type species: Musca gibbosa Linnaeus, 1758, subs. mon. Latreille, 1802: 432 (as Syrphus gibbossus Fabricius).

Subgenus OGCODES Latreille

OGCODES Latreille, 1796: 154 (as gen.). Type species: Musca gibbosa Linnaeus, 1758, subs. mon. Latreille, 1802: 432 (as Syrphus gibbossus Fabricius).
ONCODES Meigen, 1822: 99 (unjust emend. of Ogcodes).
HENOPS, authors, not Illiger, 1798, misid.
ACRODES, OGEODES, OGKODES, errors for Ogcodes.
argigaster Schlinger, 1960: 260. NZ (NZ).
armstrongi Paramonov, 1957e: 537. Australia (NSW).
ater White, 1914b: 72. Australia (Tas); Australia (Vic).
basalis Walker, 1852: 203 (Henops). Australia (NSW); Australia (ACT, Qld, SA, Tas, Vic, WA).
     darwinii Westwood, 1876b: 516. Australia (SA).
     darwini, error for darwinii.
brunneus Hutton, 1881: 24 (Henops). NZ (NZ).
canberranus Paramonov, 1957e: 544. Australia (ACT).
castaneus Brunetti, 1926: 605. Australia (Qld).
consimilis Brunetti, 1926: 603. NZ (NZ).
deserticola Paramonov, 1957e: 538. Australia (Qld).
doddi Wandolleck, 1906: 131. Australia (Qld).
flavescens White, 1914b: 70. Australia (Tas).
fortnumi Westwood, 1876b: 516. Australia (SA); Australia (ACT, NSW, Qld, Tas, Vic, WA).
fratellus Brunetti, 1926: 604. Australia (Vic); Australia (Tas).
     fraternus, error for fratellus.
froggatti Schlinger in Schlinger & Jeffries, 1989: (n. n. for fumatus Froggatt). Australia (NSW).
     fumatus Froggatt, 1907: 298. Australia (NSW). [Preocc. Erichson, 1846.]
glomerosus Paramonov, 1957e: 544. Australia (NSW).
gressitti Schlinger, 1972: 96. PNG (PNG).
ignavus Westwood, 1876b: 516. "Nov Hollandi ."
insignis Brunetti, 1926: 601. Australia (WA).
leptisoma Schlinger, 1960: 259. NZ (NZ).
lucidus Paramonov, 1957e: 545. Australia (NSW).
nigrinervis White, 1914b: 71. Australia (Tas).
nitens Hutton, 1901: 29 (Henops). NZ (NZ).
pusillus Paramonov, 1957e: 539. Australia (Qld).
pygmaeus White, 1914b: 72. Australia (Tas); Australia (Vic).
similis Schlinger, 1960: 258. NZ (NZ).
tasmannicus Westwood, 1876b: 516. Australia (Tas).
tenuipes Paramonov, 1957e: 542. Australia (Vic); Australia (NSW, Qld).
trifasciatus de Meijere, 1913c: xl [1915a: 109]. Indonesia (Irian Jaya).
variegatus Brunetti, 1926: 594. Australia (Qld).
victoriensis Brunetti, 1926: 594. Australia (Vic); Australia (NSW, Qld).
waterhousei Paramonov, 1957e: 537. Australia (NSW).
wilsoni Paramonov, 1957e: 538. Australia (WA).

Subgenus PROTOGCODES Schlinger

PROTOGCODES Schlinger, 1960: 247. Type species: Ogcodes paramonovi Schlinger, 1960, orig. des.
hirtifrons Paramonov, 1957e: 543. Australia (NSW); Australia (ACT, Tas).
paramonovi Schlinger, 1960: 247. NZ (NZ).

Last revised 2 March 2012