Neal L. Evenhuis, F. Christian Thompson,
Adrian C. Pont & B. Leilani Pyle
The-following bibliography gives full references for over 4,000 works cited
in the catalog, including the introduction, explanatory information, references,
and classification sections, and appendices. A concerted effort was made
to examine as many of the cited references as possible in order to ensure
accurate citation of authorship, date, tide, and pagination.
References are listed chronologically for multiple articles with the same
authorship. Where more than one article was published by the same author(s)
in the same year, a suffix letter supercedes the date (alphabetically according
Because the exact date of issue is crucial to the nomenclature of taxa,
parts of a single article have been cited separately if they were issued
on separate dates. In these citations the parts other than the last are
annotated with "[part]" after the title; the ultimate part of
the article, if cited, is annotated with "[concl.]" after the
title. Exceptions to this format are in cases where there;was not any conflict
with other articles published within the same year, e.g., Walker (1849)
did not publish any other works in that year, thus the publication "List
of the Diptera of the British Museum," though issued in parts on different
dates, is cited only once. Though there is no conflict with other articles
during that year, Kr,5ber's articles on Therevidae (1912) are cited separately
because there are cases of type species of new genera being fixed by subsequent
designation and subsequent monotypy. If the articles were listed as one
publication, it would result in the same type species fixations being erroneously
listed as by monotypy or original designation.
Authors' names: In order to clarify any confusion over proper use of authors'
initials in literature citations for those authors that have their initials
cited in various ways, bracketed information containing the authors' full
initials is included after the entries concerned. Because of the differing
treatments of names containing articles such as "de," "del,"
"Van," "Le," etc., these names are cross-indexed in
the bibliography under the various ways in which they may have been treated
Dates of publication: Much research was done to ascertain the correct dates
of publication for all literature cited in the catalog. Priority in date
searching was given to those articles dealing with systematics that may
have had possible homonymies in other articles published the same year by
different authors; however, dates are also cited for other systematic articles
and non-systematic articles whenever they were found.
If the issue date was determinable, the date is placed in parentheses after
the citation. Certain dates were based on receipt dates at the British
Museum (Natural History), London, marked with an asterisk (*), the Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, D.C., marked with a: double asterisk (**), or the
Bishop Museum, Honolulu, marked with a triple asterisk (***). These dates
are only given when the receipt date is earlier than a printed publication
date or if there is no other evidence of date of publication other than
a year. For those cases in which only the year was determinable, they are
considered as issued on 31 December in accordance with the Code and marked
with a cross (+) to distinguish these from articles in which the publication
date is printed as "31 December." When a printed year of publication
is found to be incorrect, or the year of publication was not known from
the publication, but was found through external evidence, the correct date
is placed in brackets according to the Code. Stafleu (1967) provides an
excellent list of sources for researching dates of publications, many of
which.were used for reference in our researches for the dating of many of
the older natural history works.
Titles: Titles of articles and books are given in full, including secondary
titles. Titles are given as on the title page of the original work (those
given on wrappers, cover pages, and in tables of contents may vary slightly)
except for standardization to lower case letters (upper case is left only
in cases where a language requires it) and into italics for scientific names
at the genus and species level. Cyrillic titles that have been transliterated
into English have been kept as close as possible to the original meaning
and are placed in brackets when no English title is given in the work.
The language of translated tides is given in brackets following the citation.
When no title was given for a particular work (such as notes at meetings),
a tide derived as close as possible from the note presented is provided
Journals: Journal titles are abbreviated according to the Serial Sources
for the BIOSIS database, Biosciences Information Service and the International
Standard (ISO). Abbreyiations for journals not in the ISO have been formed
on the same pnnciples. Additional information, such as series number or
name, is given after thejournal abbreviation and placed in parentheses but
not italicized. "New Series" and equivalents like "Neue
Folge" are abbreviated "(N.S.)" Volume numbers are given
in Arabic numbers in boldface, irrespective of whether or not Roman numerals
were used in the, work cited.
In cases where the issues or parts of a volume are continuously paginated,
the issue or part number is omitted. Issue or part numbers are included
in parentheses after the volume number if each issue is individually paginated.
In cases where no volume number exists, but the work pertains to a particular
year, that year is used as the volume number (even though the actual date
of publication may differ) and placed in boldface type. Citation of plate
numbers and figures is omitted in the citation except when the entire work
consists of plates or when necessary for nomenclatural reasons within this
catalog. Pagination is given for the entire article except in those cases
where there is a split in publication due to separate issues.
Books: Single-volumed books are cited with title (italicized) publisher
(if known), place(s) of publication, and pagination (Roman and Arabic as
appropriate). Multi-volumed books are listed separately by volume with
full reference as for single-volumed books. Continuously paginated multi-volumed
books are referenced singly for as many parts (volumes) that appeared during
that year only if separate issue dates are not known. Unnumbered pages
of a book are indicated by being placed in parentheses.
Annotations: Annotations are given to clarify authors' spellings, explanations
of dating, title variations, duplicate versions, and other reasons. Many
of these annotations have been gleaned from those given in Coulson et al.
(1965) and Smith et al. (1980) with updates and modifications to some.
In doing the bibliographic research for this catalog a separate issuance
of the Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France was "rediscovered"
(publication details are given in Macgillavry, 1936: 204). This version
of the Bulletin began publication in 1873 and was issued between 20 and
25 times a year. Between the years 1873 and 1894 two separate versions
of the Bulletin were published. The first version was the one that came
out essentially 10 days after each meeting and was sent to members of the
Soci6t6. The second version was a continuation of the original Bulletin,
which began publication in 1832 and was issued four times a year. This
second version is the version that is cited in most taxonomic works and
is found bound with the Annales in library copies of the journal. The first
version (abbreviated herein as Bull. Bimens. Soc. Entomol. Fr. for the
years 1874-1894) is the same as the current Bulletin of the Societe and
was paginated with Arabic numerals until 1885. From 1885 until 1894 the
pagination was in Roman numerals, which, during those years, coincided with
the pagination in the second version of the Bulletin (abbreviated herein
as Bull. Soc. Entomol Fr.). In the index to the publications of the Soci6t6
for the years 1881-1890, there is a footnote that stipulates that all new
taxa published in the Bulletin are to take their dates of validation from
the Bull. Bimens. Soc. Entomol. Fr. As a result of this stipulation,
some,names have earlier dates of publication than recorded in previous taxonomic
works and catalogs and others have spelling changes. For completness, citations
of all new Diptera taxa proposed in both Bulletin versions are presented
in this catalog. Authors of Diptera taxa whose names are affected include
primarily Bigot, but also Kieffer, Meade, M6gnin, and Osten Sacken.
This page last revised 28 July 1997 by nle