Australasian/Oceanian Diptera Catalog -- Web Version

Go to A/O Catalog Home Page

Table of Contents for Introduction
General References and Faunistic Checklists
Explanatory Information of the Catalog Text
Maps of Regions Covered

Australasian/Oceanian Region
Weber's Line and Adjacent Geographical Areas
Antarctic/Subantarctic Region


Like the Afrotropical and Neotropical regions, the regions covered here have not had the benefit of a previous catalog of Diptera. The Nearctic Region was cataloged over 20 years ago (Stone et al. 1965) and publication of a new checklist is expected soon, which will reflect recent taxonomic work on selected major families; the Oriental Region has been cataloged in a 3-volume work (Delfinado & Hardy, 1973, 1975, 1977), and the Afrotropical Region has been recently cataloged (Crosskey 1980). The Neotropical Region has been cataloged family by family in a fascicle format, with only 17 families remaining to be completed. The Palearctic Region has been cataloged in a 14-volume work, of which 13 volumes have appeared in print (the index to all volumes -- volume 14 -- is in preparation).

The geographic scope of this catalog encompasses land areas needed to complete the cataloging of the Diptera east of Weber's Line in the Indonesian Archipelago, Australia, New Zealand, and Oceanic islands. An appendix including Antarctica and Subantarctic islands was added in order to complete the cataloging of the Diptera of the world, as no other regional catalog has included these areas in toto (the Neotropical catalog consistently included only the Falkland Islands). This catalog includes Antarctica and all those areas of the Subantarctic and that were omitted in previous catalogs.

The numbers of Diptera in various zoogeographic regions has always been a subject of much speculation, due primarily to the lack of current checklists or catalogs. With the cataloging of the Diptera of 4 of the 6 zoogeographic regions now completed and the remaining 2 in the process of being completed, a more accurate estimate can be made. Combined totals for the Nearctic (25,000), Afrotropical (16,318), Oriental (15,964), and Australasian/Oceanian (15,700) regions exceed over 72,700 species. Adding the projected species numbers of the Palearctic (25,000) and Neotropical (20,000) regions and subtracting an estimated 2% for cosmopolitan species, which may be listed in more than one regional catalog, results in an estimate of 114,600 species worldwide. This increase over the projected figure of 90,000 to 100,000 species projected by Crosskey (1980) probably reflects current increased worldwide activity in Diptera systematics. Moreover, this figure is still a very conservative estimate of the total number of species. Current specialized collecting techniques including visual and chemical baits, Malaise traps, and locally concentrated surveys will continue to add more taxa to the known world Diptera fauna. Furthermore, recent studies in tropical forest canopies in Central and South America, Papua New Guinea, and Sulawesi indicate that previous estimates of insect species numbers worldwide might have to be revised upward ten-fold or more.

While work on Diptera taxonomy in the geographical areas covered here has been rather extensive, it is diffused throughout the literature, sometimes in rare and obscure works. Many checklists for islands or island groups have appeared sporadically in the literature. A separate section on faunistic references for the regions covered is presented following the Introduction to aid workers and students of Diptera systematics of these areas.

Much work still remains to be done on the systematics of many families in these regions. The Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae are among the best-studied groups, largely as a result of their medical importance. The Tephritidae are another well-studied group and, because of their economic importance to agriculture and commerce, funding for research on these flies continues, including new techniques for differentiating taxa through genetics and biochemical studies. Contrastingly, families such as the Bombyliidae, Lauxaniidae, Therevidae, as well as many other acalyptrate families, are in desperate need of revision. Many acalyptrate families were treated only at a basic taxonomic level by J.R. Malloch in his many papers from these regions; much more material exists in various museums awaiting further study.

The goal of this work was to reach a compromise between a complete catalog, including all references to names listed, and a basic checklist. The former would be too voluminous for the general user, while the latter would be too brief as a proper taxonomic and nomenclatural reference. The basic needs for reference (taxonomic name, author, reference by date and page, and distribution including type locality) are given in this catalog, as well as current taxonomic status (valid, invalid, or synonymous) for all names listed and current intrafamilial classification (though this may vary from specialist to specialist).

All names of Diptera mentioned in the literature from 1758 for the Australasian/Oceanian Regions are listed. Names of species from Antarctica and Subantarctic islands are given in Appendix I. Fossil taxa recorded from the regions are listed in Appendix II. The inclusion of names in the original catalog was complete through June 1987, though many names published subsequent to that date were listed. As much current data as possible has been added to each family chapter of this weeb version of the catalog. Continual updates to each chapter will be made as information becomes available.


The following are general references and checklists to the Diptera of the many land areas found in the Australasian/Oceanian Regions. More specific references treating groups at or below the family level are listed after the introductory paragraphs for most of the family chapters.

General Introductory Material
Australia: Colless & McAlpine (1970, 1974). Fiji: Bezzi (1928). Hawaiian Islands: Zimmerman (1948), Hardy (1960, 1964, 1965, 1981), Hardy & Delfinado (1980). Marquesas Islands: Adamson (1939). Micronesia: Gressitt (1954). Samoa: Buxton (1935).

Australia: Musgrave (1932). Micronesia: Esaki et al. (1955). New Guinea: Gressitt & Szent-Ivany (1968). New Zealand: Miller (1956). Subantarctic Islands/Antarctica: Gressitt & Weber (1959), Gressitt & Pryor (1961).

Oriental Region to New Guinea: Wulp (1896c). New Zealand: Miller (1950).

Local Checklists (Australasian/Oceanian)
Bonin Islands: Tuyama & Asami (1970), Shinonaga (1978). Cook Islands: Krauss (1961). Easter Island: Enderlein (1938b), Campos & Peña (1973), Ripa (1986). Fiji: Bezzi (1928), Hinckley (1965). French Polynesia: Aubertin & Cheesman (1929), Curran (1936). Guam: Swezey (1946), Bohart & Gressitt (1951). Hawaiian Islands: Hardy (1960, 1964, 1965, 1981), Tenorio (1969), Hardy & Delfinado (1980), Nishida (1992, 1994). Indonesian Archipelago: Walker (1866), de Meijere (1918). Johnston Atoll: Bryan (1926), Krauss (1947), Amerson & Shelton (1976). Kiribati (Canton Island): Van Zwaluwenberg (1943). Macquarie Island: Gressitt (1962). Marshall Islands: Sugerman (1972, 1979), Samuelson & Nishida (1988). New Zealand (Antipodes and Bounty islands): Harrison (1953). New Zealand (southern islands): Harrison (1976). New Zealand (all islands): Miller (1950). Niue: Evenhuis (1985b). Palmyra Atoll: Krauss (1953). Solomon Islands: Curran (1936). Wake Island: Joyce (1964).

Local Checklists (Subantarctic/Antarctic)
General: Gressitt (1970). Amsterdam Island: Séguy (1960). Antarctica: Gressitt (1967), Wirth & Gressitt (1967). Crozet Islands: Séguy (1940), Dreux (1965a, 1965b, 1966), Davies (1973). Kerguelen Islands: Séguy (1940), Harrison (1970). Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island): Séguy (1940, 1971), Jeannel (1953). St. Paul Island: Séguy (1940).

Checklists and other references to the dipterous fauna of Australia, New Guinea, and the specific islands in the Hawaiian Island chain are too numerous to mention here. The reader is referred to the references cited above for these various areas in the General Introductory Material and Bibliographies sections for additional citations. Further information on recent immigrants and purposeful introductions to the Hawaiian Islands may be obtained from issues of the Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society.

Additionally, the reader is referred to Lee et al. (1956), who present a list of all the Australasian Diptera described by Malloch, type depositories for each species, and an abbreviated bibliography of his works on Diptera from this region. Because Malloch covered so many families (43), from Bibionidae to Tachinidae, and described over 1000 species from the regions covered in this catalog, this work is an essential basic reference for any Diptera systematist conducting research in these regions.


The editor is deeply indebted to the many contributors who prepared, or helped prepare, the family chapters for this catalog. Many had other research projects, manuscripts, travel, and other concurrent commitments during the preparation of material for this catalog. Without their expertise and the time they generously gave to preparing these chapters, the catalog could not have been completed.

The catalog benefitted greatly from the comments and suggestions of colleagues who were asked for advice and helped review chapters in their specialty. Those acknowledged for such assistance include: Bryan K. Cantrell (Sarcophagidae), John E. Chainey (Tabanidae), Roger W. Crosskey (nomenclature), R.A.I. Drew (Tephritidae: Dacinae), David J. Greathead (Bombyliidae), Jack C. Hall (Bombyliidae), P.M. Johns (Tipulidae), Wayne N. Mathis (Fergusoninidae), D.K. McAlpine (Clusiidae, Heleomyzidae, Lauxaniidae, Micropezidae, Otitidae, Platystomatidae, Pyrgotidae, and other smaller acalyptrate families), J.F. McAlpine (Lonchaeidae), Hugh Oliver (Phoridae), Thomas Pape (Sarcophagidae), Brian R. Pitkin (Psilidae), Adrian R. Plant (Empididae), Adrian C. Pont (Calliphoridae), Curtis W. Sabrosky (Aulacigastridae, familial nomenclature), Guy Shewell (Lauxaniidae), George C. Steyskal (Neriidae, Otitidae, Platystomatidae, classical advice), JoAnn M. Tenorio (Celyphidae), F.Christian Thompson (Pipunculidae, familial classification, nomenclature), Ron A. Ward (Culicidae), Ian White (Tephritidae), Norman E. Woodley (familial classification), and David K. Yeates (Bombyliidae: Comptosiini).

The bibliography could not have been completed without the generous help of many people and institutions. Pamela Gilbert and her staff in the Entomology Library of the British Museum (Natural History) were indispensible in their efforts to search for and obtain many rare and obscure references. Roger W. Crosskey, Loïc Matile, and Kenneth G.V. Smith were very helpful with information concerning dating, citation, and interpretation of many works. D.E. Hardy was especially helpful with many references on Tephritidae, Pipunculidae, and Bibionidae. Jack C. Hall helped with acquiring copies of many references that were otherwise inaccessible to us. Special thanks are due to Leilani Pyle, who gave more than her share of hours in obtaining references for our files and dating many of the articles cited herein. She is truly the Imgard Muller of Australasian/Oceanian Diptera bibliographies. Others that helped in obtaining references include Margaret L. Debenham, Raymond J. Gagn., Jon Martin, Pjotr Oosterbroek, and the library staff of the Bishop Museum. Eiko Lynch of the Bishop Museum Library was especially helpful in translating Japanese and determining publication dates for some Japanese journals and books.

The National Science Foundation is thanked for its support of the project. Thanks also go to the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation for funding the Terrestrial Invertebrate Faunal Survey of Hawaii, the resulting database of which was very useful in checking names of Diptera taxa occurring in the Hawaiian literature.

Special thanks are due to Wallace A. Steffan, who helped initiate this project. Though a change of venue early in the development of the project precluded his further involvement in its management, his continuing enthusiasm and support for it was a great inspiration.


General Information
Because the format of this catalog generally follows that of the Afrotropical Catalogue (Crosskey 1980), the explanatory information presented herein corresponds to the headings and subheadings of the Afrotropical Catalogue's Explanatory Information section. This will facilitate comparisons with regard to treatment of nomenclature, geographical material, etc.

Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Information
. Scope: This catalog includes all names, available and unavailable according to the Code (see below), that apply to Diptera taxa occurring in the areas encompassing the Australasian and Oceanian regions. Appendix I includes all names that apply to Diptera taxa occurring in Antarctica and/or Subantarctic Islands not treated in other regional catalogs. Appendix II lists all known names of fossil Diptera taxa that have been described from the Australasian and Oceanian regions.

2. Adherence to the Code: Wherever possible, all requirements of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Ride et al. 1985) have been followed in this catalog. Some exceptions occur in the treatment and listing of some names in accordance with common usage and in the interest of taxonomic stability. These exceptions have been fully annotated and in most instances should be formally submitted to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature for action.

The common practice of placing parentheses around names of authors whose species-group epithets are no longer combined with their original genera is not followed in this catalog. In this respect, the editor feels that conformity with the format used in the Afrotropical Catalogue (Crosskey 1980) is warranted. Application for amendment of Article 51c of the Code, which requires this practice, has been made to the Commission (Gagné et al. 1984), with comments in favor of this application published by Steyskal et al. (1986) and Staines (1986). Rather than deliberate further here, the reader is referred to Crosskey (1980: 18) for a complete discussion of the argument for elimination of this practice.

3. Arrangement of taxa: Suprageneric taxa (subtribes, tribes, subfamilies) are arranged in the systematic order preferred by the author(s) of each family treatment. Names of valid genera are listed alphabetically within higher category (subtribe, tribe, subfamily, or family) and valid subgenera listed alphabetically within genera. Where the currently accepted classification of a family calls for certain genera to be divided into subgenera, but only the nominate subgenus is known from the regions covered in this catalog, the subgenus category is omitted and its species are listed under the nominal genus. Valid species are listed alphabetically within genera or subgenera, and valid infraspecific taxa [varieties and forms (those proposed before 1961), and subspecies] are listed alphabetically within species. Species possessing subspecies have the nominate subspecies listed below the species only if it occurs in the regions covered here. As with subgenera, if the current classification of a species calls for it to be divided into subspecies, but no subspecies other than the nominate subspecies occurs in the regions covered here, then the nominate subspecies is listed only as a species. Synonyms including all available and unavailable names (genus-group and species-group) are listed chronologically; variant spellings (termed "errors" herein) and misidentifications are placed at the end of the synonyms in alphabetical order; emendations for species-group names are included but the listings are only as complete as the material supplied by the authors (see also below under Section 8).

Unplaceable taxa are listed at the end of the most appropriate taxon (e.g., subgenerically unplaced species at the end of the genus possessing subgenera; subfamilially unplaced genera and species at the end of the family treatment).

4. Typographical treatment of names: Valid generic and specific names are listed in boldface and placed flush left (uppercase for genus-group names; lowercase for species-group names). Suprageneric headings are not in boldface. Genus-group and suprageneric headings are centered, with authorship for the genus-group names in boldface along with the genus-group name. Genus-group names containing only species that at one occurred in the regions covered here, but no longer exist (e.g., species introduced for biological control, but did not become established) are listed in plain Roman type, but retain the centered heading and uppercase flush left format. Species-group names occurring at one time in these regions, but no longer exist are also listed in plain Roman type. Synonyms are listed in italics (uppercase and flush left for genus-group names, lowercase and indented for species-group names). Valid infraspecific names, specific and infraspecific synonyms, and unavailable names are indented under the valid species concerned. In the few cases of junior homonymy in species-group names when an author prefers to not propose a replacement name (pending further study), the junior homonym is placed flush left in alphabetical order with valid species but is listed in italics because, in most cases, it cannot be valid. Specifically unplaceable and unavailable names (nomina nuda, non-binomial names, etc.) are placed in a list at the end of the appropriate higher taxon.

5. Taxonomic references: References given after each name pertain to the original proposal of that name. Additional (secondary) references are given in brackets when necessary for nomenclatural purposes, or to give secondary citations when an author described the same taxon as new in a different work (when there is more than one secondary reference they are listed in chronological order).

Each reference consists of name (genus- or species-group), author(s), date of publication, and page. Nomenclaturally available genus-group names follow this reference line with information on the type species (see below under Section 6). Suppressed and other invalid genus-group names (nomina nuda, unjustified emendations, and incorrect original and subsequent spellings) do not have type-species information listed. A replacement name for a genus-group name (justified or unjustified) has the same type species as does the genus-group name it is replacing, thus no type-species information is necessary. Valid species-group names are followed by geographical distribution (see below under Treatment of Geographical Information, Sections 2 and 3). The author and date combination can be used to find the corresponding reference in the Literature Cited section. (Dates are suffixed with letters, denoting chronological order, when authors have published more than one article in the same year.)

Changes from the original combination and taxonomic status for all names listed (except changes in suffix spelling of specific epithets in order to agree in gender with the genus with which it is combined) are completely annotated. For species-group names that have been transferred from the original nominal genus to another nominal genus, the original genus is placed in parentheses after the page number with its original orthography at the time the species-group name was described, whether the genus was spelled correctly or not, e.g., "geniculata Wulp, 1899: 206 (Stenopterina)." In this case the species geniculata was originally described in the genus Senopterina by Wulp, though he spelled it incorrectly as "Stenopterina". For genus-group names that have had changes of taxonomic status (subgenus to genus; genus to subgenus), the original status is placed in parentheses after the page , e.g., "DAPTOLESTES Hull, 1962: 286 (Austrosaropogon subg.)," "NEOCALLIPHORA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 87 (as gen.)." For species-group names (valid or invalid) that have had changes of their original specific or infraspecific status [species to infraspecies (subspecies, variety, form); infraspecies to species; infraspecies to other infraspecies], the original status is placed in parentheses after the page number, e.g., "ssp. haleakalae Alexander, 1951b: 583 (as sp.)." If the original combination treated a present infraspecific taxon as a trinomium of a species other than the one under which it is listed under in this catalog, or if a taxon was raised at some point in its taxonomic history from infraspecific status, then the original nominate species is listed in parentheses after the page, e.g., "salomonis Hennig, 1935: 192 (contingens ssp.)." Changes of both original genus combination and specific or infraspecific status are treated with combined annotations, e.g., "variegatans Strickland, 1911b: 204 (Culicada vandema var.)," "ssp. queenslandensis Theobald, 1901a: 297 (Stegomyia fasciata var.)," "ssp. zonatipes Walker, 1861a: 229 (Culex; as sp.)."

Authors cited are those responsible for the names listed in accordance with the Code. Authorship by more than one author is listed as in the original work. When authorship of the name is different from the authorship of the work, the citation takes the form "Steyskal in Hardy & Delfinado, 1981", so that the work can be located in the Literature Cited section (in this case, under "Hardy & Delfinado, 1981"). Spelling of authors' names follows that most commonly used or, when known, the spelling that is preferred by the author. Authors' names containing the articles "de," "del," "du," and "le" are cited in full and alphabetized in the bibliography under the article, e.g., "de Meijere" instead of "Meijere." However, the articles "van", "von", "van den", and "van der" are omitted, e.g., "Wulp" instead of "van der Wulp" (anomalies in this practice occur only in cases where a non-European author prefers the use of the article, e.g., "Van Duzee" instead of "Duzee." Spelling of Russian names takes the predominant form when transliterated from the Cyrillic to the Roman alphabet or the transliterated form preferred by the author.

The date of a work given in the catalog is that which is cited in the original work. If a name was published in an undated work, a work in which the date could only be found from external evidence, or a work in which the given date was found to be incorrect, the correct date is given in brackets in the bibliography in accordance with Recommendation 22A(5) of the Code, but the brackets are omitted from the date in the catalog text.

In cases where 2 or more bibliographic references are given for the same name, e.g., "cinctus Guérin-Méneville, 1831: pl. 21, fig. 9 [1838: 299]," "MICROEPICAUSTA Hendel, 1914d: 8, 141 [1914e: 80]," the nomenclatural availability of the name dates from the first reference. In rare instances where the second reference involves a different binomen than the first, or a different taxonomic category (genus, subgenus; or species, infraspecies), this is annotated in parentheses immediately following the reference concerned, e.g., "SPINULOPHILA Duda, 1923c: 47 (as gen.) [1924a: 203 (Drosophila subg.)]."

Page numbers cited are those on which the name appears in the original work, except in cases where reprint pagination predates the journal issue date (having been issued in advance of the published article). Following the format of the Afrotropical Catalogue, Macquart's "Diptères exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus" have both the journal and reprint pagination cited, with the reprint pagination in parentheses, e.g, "fuscicornis Macquart, 1843: 144(87) (Oxyrhina)" except for his 1838b, 1840, and 1847 works in this series, in which the reprint was issued in advance of the journal article. In these cases the journal date and pagination are listed in brackets after the reprint pagination, e.g. "1840: 78 [1841: 356]" and "1847a: 100 [1847b: 116]." Pagination in lowercase Roman numerals is given when necessary (e.g., names validated in notes presented at meetings); and, in rare cases, in uppercase Roman numerals (to differentiate from lowercase in the same work), e.g., "ANTINEURA Osten Sacken, 1881a: 134 [1882a: xcix]," "Type species: Sigmatomera flavipennis Osten Sacken, 1873, subs. mon. Osten Sacken, 1873: IX." In the rare case of an unpaginated and unnumbered illustrated work, the page and figure numbers are given in brackets as if numbered consecutively from page 1, and plate 1, figure 1, e.g., "guttatus Donovan, 1805: [166], [pl. 41]."

6. Type species: Type species of genus-group names are listed in their original binomia with original authorship and date irrespective of their citation and orthography at the time of the establishment of the genus-group name. Subgeneric epithets that may have been included in the original establishment of the type species are omitted. The correct nominal type species is listed first, with any senior synonym listed in brackets, e.g. "Type species: Geron gibbosus Meigen, 1820 [= Bombylius gibbosus Olivier, 1789]." If the type species is invalid because of homonymy, the citation takes the following form: "Type species: Musca cinerea Fallén, 1824 [preocc., = Egeria silvatica Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830]." If the nominal species was misidentified so that the actual type species is different from the proposed type species, it is cited in the following form: "Type species: Musca radicum Linnaeus, 1758 [misid., = Musca audaculus Harris, 1780]." In this particular case, the misidentified type species is Musca radicum Linnaeus and the actual type species is Musca audaculus Harris. Since the misidentified type species was treated in the sense of the author proposing the genus-group name (in this case Schnabl, 1911, for the genus Paregle), the information "sensu Schnabl, 1911", which is conventionally listed after the misidentified type species, is omitted due to redundancy.

Method of fixation of type species follows Articles 68 and 69 of the Code and uses the terms (in order of precedence according to Art. 68 and 69) "original designation," "monotypy," "subsequent designation," "subsequent monotypy," and "absolute tautonomy" (all in abbreviated forms; see Section 13). In cases of subsequent monotypy and subsequent designation, the author, date, and page of the designation is given, e.g., "... subs. mon. Osten Sacken, 1873: IX," "... des. Coquillett, 1910: 652."

If a genus-group name was originally proposed without included species, annotation is given in brackets to the work that lists the first inclusion of species in the genus from which the subsequent designation was made unless the designation is by subsequent monotypy.

7. Homonyms and replacement names: Preoccupied names are noted with annotations in brackets. Genus-group junior homonyms have this bracketed information following the type-species information; species-group junior homonyms have this bracketed information following the type locality, e.g., "longicornis Doleschall, 1858: 79. Indonesia (Maluku). [Preocc. Linnaeus, 1758.]" Replacement names are listed with the preoccupied name they replace in parentheses after the page reference, e.g., "anostigma McAlpine, 1973: 175 (n. n. for australis Walker)." "NOTOPSILA Osten Sacken, 1882b: 209 (n. n. for Pachycephala)."

8. Emendations and variant spellings: Emendations at the genus-group level (justified or unjustified) are listed in the catalog with full reference citation [author(s), date, page] because they are available names according to the Code, e.g., "BRACHYNEURA Agassiz, 1846: 5 (unjust. emend. of Brachineura)." Most genus-group names and associated type-species information have been checked by the editor. Justified species-group emendations do not have author, date, and page of the emendation listed in all cases, but have the original orthography listed in parentheses after the page reference. The enumeration of these emendations is only as complete as the information supplied by the authors. Incorrect spellings are not available names, hence are listed in the form: "fulleri. Incorr. orig. spell. of fullerae" (followed by author, date, and pagination in parentheses if the incorrect spelling is an example of more than one spelling for the same taxon found in the original publication). When a name is spelled in more than one way in the original publication (frequently in Macquart's works), the correct spelling is determined by the First Reviser Principle. Other variant spellings (i.e., incorrect subsequent spellings) are listed as "errors." Some species-group errors may be emendations, but is was not possible to check all literature citations to verify these.

9. Gender endings of species-group names: Names in synonymy are cited in their original orthography, but to satisfy Article 30 of the Code, valid names have been checked and changed when necessary to ensure that the ending agrees in gender with the genus under which it is presently combined. (It was not possible to check all names, hence some gender endings may be incorrect, especially in cases where it was not possible to ascertain adjectival status.)

10. Misidentifications: Only those misidentifications that each author deemed important have been included in the catalog. The names of misidentified taxa are italicized as with junior synonyms but are separated from authorship with a comma, e.g., "OCYPTERA, authors, not Latreille, 1804, misid.," "argentata, Malloch, 1930, not Curran, 1927, misid."

11. Nomenclatural changes: Changes in binomial combination, rank, and validity presented for the first time in this catalog are marked in boldface with abbreviated notations (listed in Section 13). Changes in binomial combination for junior synonyms are not annotated nor are changes in rank, combination, or validity that are not newly presented in the catalog.

12. Miscellaneous annotations: Nomina nuda are listed under their current synonym (if known), without type locality or distributional information, and are followed by "Nomen nudum." When synonymy is not known for nomina nuda, they are listed at the end of the most appropriate higher taxon under the heading "Nomina nuda in ...."

Extralimital species erroneously recorded in the literature as occurring in the Australasian/Oceanian Regions are listed in alphabetical order with valid species and placed flush left, e.g., "afra Fabricius--not Australasian/Oceanian." Other annotations are added
in brackets for various circumstances such as nomenclatural actions by I.C.Z.N., taxonomic information that clarifies usage, etc.

13. Abbreviations: The following abbreviations are used in the introductory paragraphs and taxonomic portions of the catalog:

	alt.		= alternate, alternative
	Art		= Article (of the Code)
	bibliogr		= bibliography(s)
	cat		= catalog
	classif		= classification
	biol		= biology(s)
	behav		= behavior
	Code		= International Code of Zoological
	des		= designated by (subsequent designation by)
	descr		= description
	diagn		= diagnosis(es)
	dist		= distribution
	econ		= economic
	emend		= emendation
	esp		= especially
	evol		= evolution
	fig		= figure(s)
	f		= form
	gen		= genus, genera, generic
	I.C.Z.N		= International Commission on
			 Zoological Nomenclature
	immat		= immature(s)
	import		= importance
	Incorr. orig. spell	= Incorrect original spelling
	misid		= misidentification
	mon		= by monotypy
	morphol		= morphology
	N. comb		= New combination
	n. gen		= new genus
	n. n		= new name (replacement name)
	N. stat		= New status
	N. syn		= New synonym
	nomencl		= nomenclature
	orig. des	= by original designation
	phylog		= phylogeny
	pl		= plate
	Preocc		= preoccupied
	pres. des	= by present designation
	prob		= probable, probably
	rev		= revision(s), review(s)
	s. l		= sensu lato
	s. str		= sensu stricto
	sp(p		= species
	spell		= spelling
	ssp		= subspecies
	subg		= subgenus
	subs. mon	= by subsequent monotypy
	syst.		= systematics
	taut.		= by absolute tautonomy
	unjust.		 = unjustified
	unnec.		 = unnecessary
	var.		= variety
	zoogeogr.	= zoogeography

Treatment of Geographical Information
. Coverage of the catalog: The islands and land masses covered by the catalog are shown and numbered on Map 1. A detail of the islands at the western portion of the coverage of the catalog in the Indonesian Archipelago is given in Map 2. The western boundary is Weber's Line in the Indonesian Archipelago and Belau northward to the Bonin and Volcano islands. The northern boundary consists of the Hawaiian island chain westward to Midway, and Marcus and Wake islands. The southern boundary is Macquarie Island (not considered Subantarctic for purposes of this catalog). The eastern boundary is Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez (though apparently no Diptera have been recorded from the latter). The areas covered by the catalog have been variously termed, collectively or separately, as "Australian," "Australasian," "Pacific," or "Oceanian." No true, single zoogeographical entity covers all the regions encompassed here because there are strong faunal influences from adjacent zoogeographical regions, especially so on various Pacific island groups (viz., Palearctic influences on the Bonin and Volcano islands; Oriental influences on the western Oceanic islands, eastern Indonesian islands, and the Papuan Subregion; and Neotropical influences on the far eastern Oceanic islands). For lack of a definitive term that encompasses all the areas treated within this catalog, the term "Australasian/Oceanian" is adopted herein.

Antarctica, along with Antarctic and Subantarctic islands is treated in Appendix I of the catalog. Only those island and island groups that have not been treated in previous regional catalogs are included (see Map 3).

2. Type localities: Only the country, island group, or state or province are listed depending on the format. In rare cases where the type locality cannot be found in any of the available gazetteers or atlases for the areas covered by the catalog, the type locality is cited in full as given in the original publication and placed in quotes. For valid species-group names, the type locality is followed by supplemental distributional information, if known, separated from the type locality by a semicolon. For junior synonyms, only the type locality is listed. When more than one type locality is listed by the author and no lectotype has been designated, these localities are listed either in alphabetical order, with each locality connected by an ampersand, or are cited verbatim, e.g., "Australia & Indonesia (Java) & PNG (PNG)," "Nouvelle-Hollande et de la Tasmanie." When a lectotype has been designated from one of the original localities, in most cases only the lectotype locality is listed without further annotation. [Note: the use of the ampersand for syntype localities in the catalog should be distinguished from that used in "Wallis & Futuna," which is the correct citation of that island group in the Australasian/Oceanian Regions.] When neotype localities differ from the originally published locality, both are given with proper annotation, e.g., "Egypt [original type locality], Malaysia (Pen) [neotype locality]," but these citations are only as complete as the information supplied by the authors.

Some countries and island groups covered by the catalog are broken down to states, provinces, archipelagos, and smaller island groups. These "sublocalities" are placed in parentheses after the main locality, e.g., "Australia (NSW)," "New Caledonia (Loyalty Is)." When a named species-group taxon occurs in the nominate locality, it is repeated in parentheses, e.g., "PNG (PNG)," New Caledonia (New Caledonia)." In cases where the published type locality is too vague to be assigned to one of the sublocalities specified in the format of this catalog, it is listed verbatim, e.g., "Nouvelle-Hollande," "Neu-Guinea," "Australasia," "Insulis Maris pacifici," etc.

If the type locality was not given in the original description or in any other part of the original work, the term "Not given" is used. If the terms "Patrie inconnue," "Patria ignota," or their equivalents, are used in the original description, they are repeated, in quotes, in place of "Not given." If ancillary evidence (label data, etc.) has been used to infer the type locality, this inferred type locality is placed in brackets, e.g., "Not given [Australia]." Questionable inferences are prefaced with a query, e.g., "Not given [?Australia]." If it is known that the originally published type locality was in error, it is cited verbatim, in quotes, with the corrected or questionable type locality given in brackets, e.g., "Afrique, de la Victoria", error [= Australia (Vic)]." When the type locality has been clarified or queried by external publication, the reference to the external work may be added in brackets, e.g., "Tasmanie," error [= Australia (?NSW); see Hardy, 1929a: 61]."

3. Other geographical information: When applicable, supplemental distributional information is placed after the type locality, separated by semicolons, in the following order: Australasian/Oceanian distribution (localities listed in alphabetical order); extralimital distribution (from smallest geographical unit to largest and in alphabetical order within each unit), e.g., "Australia (NSW); Australia (NT, Qld), Indonesia (Maluku), PNG (PNG); China, Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah), E Palearctic Reg." For supplemental distributional listings, the type locality is not repeated.

For species whose distributions are widespread within localities that are broken down to many sublocalities or are widespread throughout the Australasian/Oceanian Regions, the abbreviated term "widesp." is used, e.g., "Australia (Qld); widesp. Australia (excl. Tas), Belau, Micronesia," "Hawaiian Is; widesp. Australasian/Oceanian Regs." Species that are cosmopolitan or almost cosmopolitan are listed as such, after the type locality, with the appropriate abbreviation (see Section 4).

The islands throughout most of the area treated in the catalog have been subject to many insect introductions including accidental introductions of pest species by commerce or other dispersal mechanisms and deliberate introductions of biological control agents. Names of valid species that occur in areas due to introduction (deliberate or accidental) or immigration are annotated in brackets after the locality(s) concerned where this information is known or has been supplied by the authors. In some cases, interceptions may have been recorded in the literature but no evidence is known of a taxon's current establishment in a locality. These localities are annotated in the following form: "Hawaiian Is [introduced; ?established]." Localities preceded by a query are considered questionable for purposes of this catalog. Many of these localities have been cited in the early literature and cannot be verified.

4. Abbreviations: The following abbreviations are used in the geographical treatment of the catalog:
		ACT	= Australian Capital Territory
		Arch	= Archipelago
		Afrotrop = Afrotropical
		C. Am	= Central America
		e	= east, eastern
		econ	= economic
		excl	= excluding
		I	= Island
		import	= importance
		incl	= including
		Is	= Islands
		N	 = north, northern
		N. Am	= North America
		Neotrop	= Neotropical
		NSW	= New South Wales
		NT	= Northern Territory
		NZ	= New Zealand (North I, South I,
				Snares Is, Stewart I)
		pantrop	= pantropical
		Pen	= Peninsular (Malaysia)
		PNG	 = Papua New Guinea
		Qld	= Queensland
		Reg(s)	= Region(s)
		S	= south, southern
		SA	= South Australia
		S.Afr	= South Africa
		S. Am	= South America
		SE 	= Southeast Asia
		Tas	= Tasmania
		USA 	= United States of America (excluding 
				Hawaiian Is)
		USSR	= Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
		Vic	= Victoria
		W	= west, western
		WA	= Western Australia
		widesp.	 = widespread

This page last revised 19 August 1996