Australasian/Oceanian Diptera Catalog -- Web Version

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[Originally] By T. C. Maa

Species of Hippoboscidae are commonly known as louse flies. Both sexes are bloodsuckers and are obligate ectoparasites, chiefly on various kinds of birds. A number of species are parasitic on marsupials (in Australia), lemurs (in Madagascar), carnivores, equines, and artiodactyls. Reproduction is by pupiparity. The larvae are nurtured internally until fully developed, ready to pupate, and attaining the prepupa stage. At that time the female deposits the prepupae, singly, on the ground where they quickly harden and darken. Host specificity is generally moderately high and varies with different environmental factors and with different species of flies and hosts. Some species are often found parasitic on several kinds of unrelated birds that occupy the same habitats. One genus is wingless, 3 genera show wing reduction, and another 3 genera shed their wings after finding a suitable host mammal.

About 200 species in 21 genera and 3 subfamilies are known. They are predominantly tropical and subtropical in distribution. Only a small number of species have successfully spread to the Arctic area. The hippoboscid fauna of the Australasian/Oceanian area is fairly poor. The subfamilies Hippoboscinae and Lipopteninae, which are parasitic exclusively on mammals, are each represented by a single introduced species because there exist no suitable native host mammals. Among the species found on birds, only about a dozen species have been reported
from the thousands of Oceanian islands, at least 3 of which are apparently recent introductions.
Refs.: Bequaert (1941, rev. Oceanian spp.), Maa (1969d, checklist world spp.).



AUSTROLFERSIA Bequaert, 1953a: 49, fig. 14c. Nomen nudum.
AUSTROLFERSIA Bequaert, 1953b: 284. Type species: Austrolfersia ferrisi Bequaert, 1953, orig. des.
ferrisi Bequaert, 1953b: 284. Australia (Qld). [Proposed (incorrectly) as a n. n. for specimens misidentified as Ortholfersia tasmanica sensu Ferris (1924); name validated by bibliographic reference to Ferris (1924).]
    tasmanica, Ferris, 1924, not Wesché, 1903, misid.

Genus ICOSTA Speiser

ICOSTA Speiser, 1905: 358. Type species: Olfersia dioxyrhina Speiser, 1904, orig. des.
LYNCHIA, authors, not Weyenbergh, 1881, misid.

Subgenus ARDMOECA Maa

ARDMOECA Maa, 1969b: 137. Type species: Olfersia ardeae Macquart, 1835, orig. des.
ardeae Macquart, 1835: 640 (Olfersia). Sicily; Australia (NT, Qld), Northern Marianas; almost cosmopol.
holoptera Lutz in Lutz et al., 1915: 184 (Olfersia). Brazil; Indonesia (Irian Jaya), PNG (PNG); Nearctic, Neotrop., Oriental Regs.
    ssp. omnisetosa Maa, 1969b: 152. Indonesia (Irian Jaya); PNG (PNG); E Oriental Reg.
    omnisetosa Maa, 1967: 269 (as sp.). Nomen nudum.

Subgenus ICOSTA Speiser

ICOSTA Speiser, 1905: 358 (as gen.). Type species: Olfersia dioxyrhina Speiser, 1904, orig. des.
acromialis Speiser, 1904a: 386 (Olfersia). PNG (PNG); Indonesia (Irian Jaya), PNG (Bismarck Arch), Solomon Is; Philippines.
chalcolampra Speiser, 1904b: 335 (Olfersia). PNG (PNG); Australia (Qld), Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Maluku), PNG (Bismarck Arch), Solomon Is; Oriental Reg.
    pollicipes Ferris, 1927b: 228. Philippines.
diluta Maa, 1969b: 111. PNG (PNG).
    diluta Maa, 1967: 269. Nomen nudum.
dioxyrhina Speiser, 1904a: 387 (Olfersia). PNG (PNG); Indonesia (Irian Jaya), PNG (Bismarck Arch), Solomon Is.
jactatrix Maa, 1969b: 101. Indonesia (Irian Jaya); PNG (PNG).
plana Walker, 1861b: 254 (Ornithomyia). Indonesia (Irian Jaya); PNG (PNG).
    papuana Rondani, 1878: 162 (Olfersia). Indonesia (Irian Jaya).
samoana Ferris, 1927a: 17 (Lynchia). Western Samoa.

Subgenus ORNITHOPONUS Aldrich

ORNITHOPONUS Aldrich, 1923a: 77 (as gen.). Type species: Feronia americana Leach, 1817, orig. des.
antica Maa, 1969b: 200. PNG (PNG).
australica Paramonov, 1954b: 291 (Ornithophila). Australia (Qld).
nigra Perty, 1833: 190 (Hippobosca). Brazil; Hawaiian Is; Nearctic, Neotrop. Regs.
    intertropica Walker, 1849: 1144 (Ornithomyia). Galapagos Is.
    acarta Speiser, 1902b: 149 [1902c: 87] (Olfersia). Hawaiian Is.
parallelifrons Speiser, 1902a: 336 (Olfersia). PNG (PNG); Australia (NSW), Indonesia (Irian Jaya).
    cacatuae Maa, 1967: 269. Nomen nudum.
paramonovi Maa, 1969b: 85. Australia (SA); Australia (NSW).
simplex Walker, 1861c: 263 (Ornithomyia). Indonesia (Sulawesi); Indonesia (Irian Jaya), PNG (PNG).
suvaensis Bequaert, 1941: 283 (Lynchia). Fiji.


MYOPHTHIRIA Rondani, 1875b: 464. Type species: Myophthiria reduvioides Rondani, 1875, mon.
MYIOCORYZA Rondani, 1878: 155. Type species: Myiophthiria lygaeoides Rondani, 1878, orig. des.
MYIOPHTHIRIA, error for Myophthiria.
fijiarum Maa, 1980: 851. Fiji.
lygaeoides Rondani, 1878: 155. Indonesia (Maluku); Indonesia (Irian Jaya), PNG (PNG); ?Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara).
neocaledonica Maa, 1980: 854. New Caledonia (New Caledonia).
neohebudarum Maa, 1980: 847. Vanuatu.
queenslandae Maa, 1980: 846. Australia (Qld).
reduvioides Rondani--not Australasian/Oceanian.
wilsoni Maa, 1980: 848. PNG (PNG).

Genus OLFERSIA Leach

FERONIA Leach, 1817a: 6 [1818a: 550, 557]. Type species: Feronia spinifera Leach, 1817, des. Speiser, 1899a: 202. [Preocc. Latreille, 1817.]
OLFERSIA Leach, 1817c: 162 (n. n. for Feronia).
PSEUDOLFERSIA Coquillett, 1899d: 336. Type species: Pseudolfersia maculata Coquillett, 1899 [= Lynchia fumipennis Sahlberg, 1886], mon.
ALFERSIA, error for Olfersia.
aenescens Thomson, 1869: 610. Cocos (Keeling) Is; pantrop. in Atlantic, Indian, Pacific oceans.
    erythropsis Bigot, 1885l: 239. New Caledonia (New Caledonia).
fossulata Macquart, 1843: 434(277). Brazil; Indonesia (Maluku); Philippines, Neotrop. Reg.
spinifera Leach, 1817a: 11 [1818a: 552, 557] (Feronia). Hawaiian Is; pantrop.


ORNITHOCTONA Speiser, 1902a: 328. Type species: Ornithomyia erythrocephala Leach, 1817, orig. des.
australasiae Fabricius, 1805: 337 (Hippobosca). "in Insulis Oceani Pacifici" [original type locality], Indonesia (Java) [neotype locality]; Indonesia (Irian Jaya), PNG (PNG), Solomon Is, Vanuatu; widesp. Oriental Reg.
    obscurata Walker, 1861c: 270 (Ornithomyia). Indonesia (Sulawesi).
hulahula Maa, 1969a: 17. Hawaiian Is.
plicata Olfers, 1816: 102 (Ornithomyia). Mauritius; American Samoa, widesp. Australia, Fiji, Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Maluku), Micronesia, New Caledonia (Loyalty Is, New Caledonia), PNG (Bismarck Arch, PNG), Solomon Is, Tonga, Vanuatu, Western Samoa; Oriental Reg.
    nigricans Leach, 1817a: 12 [1818a: 558] (Ornithomyia). India.
    australis Guérin-Méneville, 1831: pl. 21, fig. 12 (Hyppobosca) [1838: 302 (Ornithomyia)]. Australia (NSW).
    sitiens Boisduval, 1835: 667 (Hippobosca). Solomon Is.
    viridipes Walker, 1858a: 235 (Hippobosca). Australia (NSW).
    doreica Walker, 1861b: 254 (Ornithomyia). Indonesia (Irian Jaya).
    batchianica Walker, 1861d: 300 (Ornithomyia). Indonesia (Maluku) [original type locality], PNG (PNG) [neotype locality].
    hatamensis Rondani, 1878: 158 (Ornithomyia). Indonesia (Irian Jaya).
    batchiana Rondani, 1878: 158 (Ornithomyia). Australia (NSW).
    kanakorum Bigot, 1885l: 244 (Ornithomyia). New Caledonia (New Caledonia).
    vitrina Speiser, 1904b: 343. Tonga.

Genus ORNITHOICA Rondani

ORNITHOICA Rondani, 1878: 159. Type species: Ornithoica beccariina Rondani, 1878, mon.

Subgenus LOBOLEPIS Maa

LOBOLEPIS Maa, 1966a: 97. Type species: Ornithoica curvata Maa, 1963, orig. des.
hirtisternum Maa, 1963: 153. Indonesia (Irian Jaya).

Subgenus ORNITHOICA Rondani

ORNITHOICA Rondani, 1878: 159 (as gen.). Type species: Ornithoica beccariina Rondani, 1878, mon.
aequisenta Maa, 1966a: 90. PNG (Bismarck Arch); Solomon Is, Vanuatu.
    ssp. aequisenta s. str. PNG (Bismarck Arch); Solomon Is.
    ssp. hystricosa Maa & Marshall, 1981: 216. Vanuatu.
beccariina Rondani, 1878: 160. Indonesia (Maluku); Australia (WA).
caledonica Sinclair, 1997: 131. New Caledonia (New Caledonia).
exilis Walker, 1861b: 254 (Ornithomyia). Indonesia (Irian Jaya); Australia (Qld), Fiji, Guam, Indonesia (Maluku), Micronesia, New Caledonia (Loyalty Is, New Caledonia), Northern Marianas, PNG (Bismarck Arch, PNG), Vanuatu, Western Samoa; Ryukyu Is, Oriental Reg.
    simplicis Maa, 1966a: 68. Indonesia (Irian Jaya).
    pusilla, authors, not Schiner, 1868, misid.
podargi Maa, 1966a: 87. PNG (PNG).
punctatissima Maa, 1966a: 92. Solomon Is.
pusilla Schiner, 1868: 374 (Ornithomyia). French Polynesia (Society Is); American Samoa, Belau, French Polynesia (Tuamotu Arch), Kiribati (Line Is, Phoenix Is), Marshall Is, Northern Marianas, Palmyra Atoll, Pitcairn Is, Tokelau, Western Samoa.
stipituri Schiner, 1868: 374 (Ornithomyia). Australia (NSW); Australia (Qld, Tas), Indonesia (Irian Jaya), NZ (Kermadec Is, NZ), PNG (Bismarck Arch, PNG), Solomon Is, Vanuatu; widesp. Oriental Reg.
    distenta Speiser, 1902a: 332. PNG (PNG).
vicina Walker, 1849: 1144 (Ornithomyia). Jamaica; Hawaiian Is; Nearctic, Neotrop. Regs.
    peroneura Speiser, 1902c: 91 (confluenta Say var.). Hawaiian Is.
    promiscua Ferris & Cole, 1922: 203. USA.
zamicra Maa, 1966a: 47. Indonesia (Irian Jaya); PNG (PNG).

Genus ORNITHOMYA Latreille

ORNITHOMYA Latreille, 1802: 466. Type species: Hippobosca avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, mon.
ORNITHOMYIA, error for Ornithomya.
apelta Maa, 1969c: 246. PNG (PNG); Solomon Is, Vanuatu; Philippines.
areolata Maa, 1986: 85. Australia (Tas).
avicularia Linnaeus--not Australasian/Oceanian.
biloba Dufour--not Australasian/Oceanian.
fuscipennis Bigot, 1885l: 242. "Colombie," error [= Australia]; Australia (NSW, Qld, SA, Vic), Indonesia (Irian Jaya), PNG (PNG), Solomon Is; widesp. Oriental Reg.
    perfuga Speiser, 1902a: 331. Australia (NSW).
fringillina Curtis--not Australasian/Oceanian.
greeni Maa, 1986: 90. Australia (Tas).
nigricornis Erichson, 1842: 274. Australia (Tas); Australia (NSW, Qld, Vic).
    tasmanensis Macquart, 1851: 282(309). Australia (Tas).
opposita Walker, 1849: 1145. NZ (NZ). Nomen dubium.
parva Macquart--not Australasian/Oceanian.
variegata Bigot, 1885l: 245. NZ (NZ); Australia (Tas).
    opposita, authors, not Walker, 1849, misid.

Nomen nudum in Ornithomya Latreille

clarki Maa, 1969d: 270.


ORNITHOPHILA Rondani, 1879: 11, 20. Type species: Ornithophila vagans Rondani, 1879 [= Ornithomyia metallica Schiner, 1862], orig. des.
ORNITHEZA Speiser, 1902a: 329. Type species: Ornithomyia gestroi Rondani, 1878, orig. des.
metallica Schiner, 1862c: 646 (Ornithomyia). Austria; American Samoa, Australia (NSW, Qld, SA, Tas), Fiji, Indonesia (Irian Jaya), New Caledonia (Loyalty Is, New Caledonia), PNG (Bismarck Arch, PNG), Solomon Is, Tonga, Vanuatu, Western Samoa; widesp. Old World.
    andajensis Rondani, 1878: 155 (Ornithomyia). Indonesia (Irian Jaya).
    noumeana Bigot, 1885l: 240 (Olfersia). New Caledonia (New Caledonia).
    aenescens Bigot, 1885l: 244 (Ornithomyia). New Caledonia (New Caledonia).


ORTHOLFERSIA Speiser, 1902b: 152. Type species: Ortholfersia phaneroneura Speiser, 1902, mon.
bequaerti Maa, 1962b: 606. Australia (Qld).
macleayi Leach, 1817a: 12 [1818a: 558] (Feronia). "Australia"; Australia (NSW, Qld, Tas).
    raveni Ferris, 1924: 4. Australia (NSW).
minuta Paramonov, 1954b: 290. Australia (Qld).
phaneroneura Speiser, 1902b: 153. Australia (NSW); Australia (Tas, Vic).
    tasmanica Wesché, 1903: 385 (Hippobosca). Australia (Tas).


PSEUDOLYNCHIA Bequaert, 1926a: 271. Type species: Olfersia maura Bigot, 1885 [= Olfersia canariensis Macquart, 1839], orig. des.
LYNCHIA, authors, not Weyenbergh, 1881, misid.
canariensis Macquart, 1839a: 119 (Olfersia). Canary Is; Hawaiian Is; cosmopol. [in association with domestic pigeons].
    maura Bigot, 1885l: 237 (Olfersia). Algeria.
mistula Maa, 1969c: 254. PNG (PNG).
serratipes Maa, 1966b: 127. PNG (PNG); Vanuatu.


Genus HIPPOBOSCA Linnaeus

HIPPOBOSCA Linnaeus, 1758: 344, 607. Type species: Hippobosca equina Linnaeus, 1758, des. Latreille, 1810: 444.
HYPPOBOSCA, error for Hippobosca.
equina Linnaeus, 1758: 607. "Europa & America septentrionali"; ?Australia, Fiji, New Caledonia (Loyalty Is, New Caledonia), Vanuatu; widesp. Old World [in association with horses].


Genus MELOPHAGUS Latreille

MELOPHAGUS Latreille, 1802: 466. Type species: Hippobosca ovina Linnaeus, 1758, mon.
ovinus Linnaeus, 1758: 607 (Hippobosca). Not given [Europe]; Australia (NSW, Qld, SA, Tas), Hawaiian Is, NZ (NZ); almost cosmopol. [in association with sheep].

This page last revised 21 May 2007