Northern Cardinals recorded per party hr on the Volcano Christmas Count, Hawai'i,

1972-2014 (see Count Page), showing an increase from the 1970s through 1990 followed by fluctuating populations into the 2010s.


Species account


Graphs of Christmas Count data developed as part of The Birds of the Hawaiian

Islands: Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status by Robert L. Pyle and Peter Pyle