White-rumped Smamas recorded per party hr on the Honolulu Christmas Count,

1944-2014 (see Count Page), indicating an expanding population in the 1970-mid

1980s followed by a decline from the late 1980s to 2010, and variable populations in the eraly 2010s. See also Moulton and Scioli (1986), Williams (1987), and Ralph (1990).


Species account


Literature Cited


Graphs of Christmas Count data developed as part of The Birds of the Hawaiian

Islands: Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status by Robert L. Pyle and Peter Pyle http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/birds/rlp-monograph/