The classification of the catalogue is limited to families and generally follows McAlpine et al. (1981) with additions of extinct families represented by fossils placed near putative related extant families. No attempt has been made to classify taxa below the family level. No infraorders, superfamilies, subfamilies, or tribes are listed. Genera within families are instead listed alphabetically. See section 4 for a list of alternative or obsolete family-group names.
Wherever possible, all requirements of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (I.C.Z.N., 1985) have been followed in this catalogue. Some exceptions occur in the treatment and listing of some names in accordance with common usage and stability of nomenclature. Where listed, these names have been fully annotated.
The common practice of placing parentheses around names of authors whose species-group names are no longer combined with their original genus-group names is not followed in this catalogue. The reader is referred to Crosskey, ed. (1980: 18) for a complete discussion of the argument for the elimination of this practice.
2. Taxonomic References:
General: References given after each name pertain to the original proposal of that name. Additional (secondary) proposals of that name as "new" are given in square brackets following the original reference. Reference to date and pagination of reprinted or translated versions of the original proposal are provided in parentheses. These reprints or translations are fully annotated with date and pagination under the original work in the Literature Cited section.
Genus-Group Names: Taxonomically valid genus-group names are listed alphabetically within each family. Valid subgenera are listed alphabetically under each nominal genus. Where the current accepted classification calls for certain genera to be subdivided into subgenera, but only the nominate subgenus is known in the fossil record, the subgeneric heading is omitted and species are listed under the nominal genus. Genus-group synonyms are listed chronologically. Junior synonyms are listed in italics, senior synonyms are listed in boldface. Only those synonyms that are found in the fossil literature, are necessary to be mentioned for nomenclatural reasons, or have not been treated in any previous Diptera catalogue are listed here. Genus-group names and their species that are provisionally included in a family are listed at the end of that particular chapter under "Questionably Included in . . . ". Unplaceable genus-group names are found in the various "Unplaced" chapters in the catalogue.
Species-Group Names: All taxonomically valid species-group names are listed under the genus heading in alphabetical order in boldface and placed flush left. Those taxa not valid nomenclaturally are listed in italics and listed flush left if no senior synonym is known. Junior synonyms are listed in italics under the senior synonym in chronological order of original date of publication. Unplaceable species-group names are listed at the end of each particular family chapter concerned with original genus-group name in parentheses after the page number. species-group names that are unplaceable to family are listed either in "Unplaced Nematocera", "Unplaced Brachycera", or "Unplaced to Family".
Author(s): Authors cited are those responsible for the original proposal of the genus-group or species-group name in accordance with the Code. Multiple authorship is listed in full throughout the catalogue. Names proposed by more than two authors are listed with full authorship in the first mention of the name and with the second and succeeding authors indicated by "et al." in each succeeding mention, e.g., in the introductory paragraphs to each family chapter and in the genus-group name paragraphs. When authorship is different from the authorship of the work in which the new name is proposed, the citation is listed in the form "Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985", which corresponds to the authorship in the Literature Cited section (in this case, the work can be found under Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985). Spelling of authors' names follows the orthography most commonly used. Transliterations from Cyrillic, Kanji and Chinese alphabets follow this rule and also defer to authors' own personal preference of transliteration if possible, e.g., "Zaitzev" rather than "Zaytsev" or "Zaitsev".
Date/pagination: The date of a work given in the catalogue is that which is cited in the original work. If a name was published in an undated work, a work in which the date was found through external evidence, or a work in which the date given was found to be incorrect, the correct date is given in square brackets in the Literature Cited section, but brackets are omitted from the date in the catalogue text.
In cases where two or more bibliographic references are given for the same name, e.g., "magnus Meunier, 1907c: 198 [1907d: 210, 1907i: 269]", "WILLISTONIELLA Meunier, 1904a: 85 [1904c: 74]", the nomenclatural availability of the name dates from the first reference.
Page numbers cited are those on which the name appears in the original work, except in cases where reprint pagination predates journal issue (having been issued in advance of the journal version of the article). When a work is known to have been reprinted or translated with different pagination, these pages are given in parentheses after the first published version of the name. If the date of the reprint or translation is the same as the original work, it is omitted from the parenthetical pagination, otherwise, the different date is given, e.g., "PROCYRTOSIA Zaitzev, 1986: 817 (1987: 152)", "fragilis Scudder, 1894: 200 (38)".
Changes in combination/taxonomic status: Changes from the original combination and taxonomic status for all names listed are fully annotated. For species-group names that have been transferred from the original nominal genus to another nominal genus, the original genus is placed in parentheses after the page number in its original orthography, whether or not the genus was spelled correctly, e.g., "cruciferella Cockerell, 1917b: 373 (Mongoma)".
For genus-group names that have had changes of taxonomic status (genus to subgenus; subgenus to genus), the original status is placed in parentheses after the page, e.g., "BREMIA Rondani, 1860: 289 (as Cecidomyia subgenus)", "LASIOHELEA Kieffer, 1921: 115 (as genus)".
For species-group names that have had changes in their taxonomic status (species to subspecies, subspecies or variety to species), the original status is placed in parentheses after the page number, e.g., "prolifica Meunier, 1916b: 492 (as vulgaris subspecies).
Type species designation: For nomenclaturally available genus-group names, the type species and the method of fixation is listed after the date and pagination or original taxonomic status. Suppressed and other invalid genus-group names (nomina nuda and incorrect original and subsequent spellings) do not have type-species information listed. Type species are listed in their original binomia with original authorship and date with original orthography (whether or not the spelling was correct). Subgeneric epithets that may have been included in the original establishment of the type species are omitted. The correct nominal type species is listed first with any senior synonyms listed in square brackets, e.g., "Type species: Phronia rustica Winnertz, 1863 [= Mycetophila exigua Zetterstedt, 1852]". If the type species is invalid because of homonymy, the citation takes the following form: "Type species: Geron gibbosus Meigen, 1820 [preoccupied, = Bombylius gibbosus Olivier, 1789]". If the nominal species was misidentified so that the actual type species is different from the proposed type species, it is cited in the following form: "Type species: Mycetophila discoidea Meigen, 1818 [misidentification, = Mycetophila fasciata Meigen, 1804]" where the misidentified type species is Mycetophila discoidea Meigen and the actual type species is Mycetophila faciata Meigen.
Method of fixation of type species follows Articles 68 and 69 of the Code and uses the terms (in order of precedence according to Article 68 and 69): "original designation", "monotypy", "subsequent designation", and "subsequent monotypy". There are no cases of absolute tautonomy in this catalogue. In cases of emendations and new replacement names, the type species is the same as for the genus-group name it emends or replaces, thus the term for fixation used here is "automatic". Genus-group names that have had no previously designated type species and have their first designation in this catalogue are listed on p. 28­p;30 and are suffixed after the type species information with the boldfaced annotation "present designation".
Geographical information: Geographical information for each species follows the date and pagination in the following form: type locality(s); other distribution. When a species-group name was originally described from an extant form, but subsequently found in fossil form, the geographical information is listed in the following form: type locality(s); other extant distribution; fossil distribution.
Type locality: Only the country, island group or state or province is listed depending on the format and is prefaced by an abbreviation of the zoogeographical region in which it occurs (see list of abbreviations for regions). If the original description is not specific as to a particular locality within a larger geographical area, the original orthography of the type locality is listed, e.g., "Ostindische". If more than one locality is included for the species-group name and no lectotype has been designated, all localities are treated as type localities and are separated by an ampersand (&), e.g., "PA: France (Oligocene) & Croatia (Miocene) [C]". In the case of amber from the Baltic region, due to the fact that the derivation of the amber could be from many geographical locations within the region, the term "Baltic" is used.
Other distribution: If localities other than the type locality (i.e., country) are known, they are placed after the type locality in the same form as for type locality.
Non-fossil distribution vs. fossil distribution: Distributional information for extant forms can be distinguished from fossil distributions by the lack of an abbreviation of taphonomy (see below) and by the order of listing in the geographical distribution line as stated above.
Geographical equivalents used in this catalogue: Political divisions separating countries has always been a dynamic process. The Catalogue uses the most current usage of geographical names. Some of the name changes adopted in this catalogue include the following (this list is not meant to be an exhaustive one for geographical equivalents):
Old Name Current Name Burma Myanmar Czechoslovakia Czech Republic Slovakia Dahomey Benin East Germany Germany Tanganyika Tanzania West Germany Germany Yugoslavia Bosnia-Hercegovina Croatia Macedonia Slovenia Yugoslavia (Serbia)
Geographical: AF = Afrotropical AU = Australasian LU = Location unknown NE = Nearctic NT = Neotropical OR = Oriental PA = Palearctic UK = United Kingdom USA = United States of America Taphonomy: A = Amber B = Tar pit or brea retrieval C = Compression or impression K = Copal P = Permineralization T = Trace fossil Other abbreviations used in the catalogue: b.p. = before present Code = International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ed(s). = editor(s) et al. = et alii (and others) fig(s). = figure(s) in litt. = in litteris Mya = million years ago pers. commun. = personal communication pers. observ. = personal observation pl(s). = plate(s) Ref. = Reference(s) s. str. = sensu stricto (in the strict sense) sp(p). = species (singular and plural) ssp. = subspecies unpubl. = unpublished data
Old Name Catalogue Treatment Allactoneuridae Mycetophilidae Antiquamediidae Antefungivoridae Archisargidae Eremochaetidae Architipulidae Limoniidae Astiidae Asteiidae Blepharoceridae Blephariceridae Bolitophilinae Bolitophilidae Borboridae Sphaeroceridae Ceroplatinae Keroplatidae Chironomapteridae Chaoboridae Clythiidae Platypezidae Coenomyiidae Xylophagidae Cordiluridae Scathophagidae Cordyluridae Scathophagidae Cramptonomyiidae Pachyneuridae Cremifaniidae Chamaemyiidae Cylindrotominae Cylindrotomidae Cypselidae Sphaeroceridae Cyrtidae Acroceridae Cyrtosiidae Mythicomyiidae Diplopolyneuridae Limoniidae Dixamimidae Chaoboridae Dorilaidae Pipunculidae Dorylaidae Pipunculidae Dyspolyneuridae Protopleciidae Empidae Empididae Eoasilididae Limoniidae Erinnidae Rhagionidae Fungivoridae Mycetophilidae Fungivoritidae Pleciofungivoridae Geomyzidae Opomyzidae Heleidae Ceratopogonidae Helomyzidae Heleomyzidae Hesperinidae Bibionidae Heteroneuridae Clusiidae Heteropezidae Cecidomyiidae Hyperoscelididae Canthyloscelididae Hypodermatidae Oestridae Itonididae Cecidomyiidae Larvaevoridae Tachinidae Leptidae Rhagionidae Leptogastridae Asilidae Lestremiidae Cecidomyiidae Limoniinae Limoniidae Liriopeidae Ptychopteridae Lycoriidae Sciaridae Macroceratidae Keroplatidae Macroceridae Keroplatidae Macrochilidae Tanyderidae Manotidae Mycetophilidae Mesotendipedidae Chaoboridae Mycetobiidae Anisopodidae Mydaidae Mydidae Mydasidae Mydidae Mythicomyiinae Mythicomyiidae Necromyzidae Keroplatidae Nemopalpidae Psychodidae Ochthiphilidae Chamaemyiidae Ogcodidae Acroceridae Olbiogastridae Anisopodidae Oligophryneidae Oligophrynidae Opetiidae Platypezidae Ortalidae Otitidae Palaeolimnobiidae Zhangobiidae Palaeophoridae Unplaced Brachycera Palaeopleciidae Protopleciidae Paleostratiomyiidae Rhagionidae Paratendipedidae Serendipidae Penthetriidae Bibionidae Phlebotomidae Psychodidae Phragmoligoneuridae Protopleciidae Phryneidae Anisopodidae Phthiriidae Bombyliidae Phyllomyzidae Milichiidae Platystomidae Platystomatidae Pleciomimidae Antefungivoridae Protobrachycerontidae Vermilionidae Protobrachyceridae Vermilionidae Protolbiogastridae Anisopodidae Protoligoneuridae Protopleciidae Prototendipedidae Protendipedidae Rhaetomyiidae Chaoboridae Rhyphidae Anisopodidae Sapromyzidae Lauxaniidae Scatomyzidae Scathophagidae Scopeumatidae Scathophagidae Sinemediidae Antefungivoridae Solvidae Xylomyidae Stenomicridae Periscelididae Systropodidae Bombyliidae Tanyderophryneidae Tanyderophrynidae Tendipedidae Chironomidae Trepidariidae Micropezidae Trichomyiidae Psychodidae Trixoscelididae Heleomyzidae Trupaneidae Tephritidae Trypaneidae Tephritidae Trypetidae Tephritidae Tylidae Micropezidae Usiidae Bombyliidae
This page last rev ised 15 December 1996