Fossil Diptera Catalog -- Web Version

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1. General:
The classification of the catalogue is limited to families and generally follows McAlpine et al. (1981) with additions of extinct families represented by fossils placed near putative related extant families. No attempt has been made to classify taxa below the family level. No infraorders, superfamilies, subfamilies, or tribes are listed. Genera within families are instead listed alphabetically. See section 4 for a list of alternative or obsolete family-group names.

Wherever possible, all requirements of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (I.C.Z.N., 1985) have been followed in this catalogue. Some exceptions occur in the treatment and listing of some names in accordance with common usage and stability of nomenclature. Where listed, these names have been fully annotated.

The common practice of placing parentheses around names of authors whose species-group names are no longer combined with their original genus-group names is not followed in this catalogue. The reader is referred to Crosskey, ed. (1980: 18) for a complete discussion of the argument for the elimination of this practice.

2. Taxonomic References:
General: References given after each name pertain to the original proposal of that name. Additional (secondary) proposals of that name as "new" are given in square brackets following the original reference. Reference to date and pagination of reprinted or translated versions of the original proposal are provided in parentheses. These reprints or translations are fully annotated with date and pagination under the original work in the Literature Cited section.

Genus-Group Names: Taxonomically valid genus-group names are listed alphabetically within each family. Valid subgenera are listed alphabetically under each nominal genus. Where the current accepted classification calls for certain genera to be subdivided into subgenera, but only the nominate subgenus is known in the fossil record, the subgeneric heading is omitted and species are listed under the nominal genus. Genus-group synonyms are listed chronologically. Junior synonyms are listed in italics, senior synonyms are listed in boldface. Only those synonyms that are found in the fossil literature, are necessary to be mentioned for nomenclatural reasons, or have not been treated in any previous Diptera catalogue are listed here. Genus-group names and their species that are provisionally included in a family are listed at the end of that particular chapter under "Questionably Included in . . . ". Unplaceable genus-group names are found in the various "Unplaced" chapters in the catalogue.

Species-Group Names: All taxonomically valid species-group names are listed under the genus heading in alphabetical order in boldface and placed flush left. Those taxa not valid nomenclaturally are listed in italics and listed flush left if no senior synonym is known. Junior synonyms are listed in italics under the senior synonym in chronological order of original date of publication. Unplaceable species-group names are listed at the end of each particular family chapter concerned with original genus-group name in parentheses after the page number. species-group names that are unplaceable to family are listed either in "Unplaced Nematocera", "Unplaced Brachycera", or "Unplaced to Family".

Author(s): Authors cited are those responsible for the original proposal of the genus-group or species-group name in accordance with the Code. Multiple authorship is listed in full throughout the catalogue. Names proposed by more than two authors are listed with full authorship in the first mention of the name and with the second and succeeding authors indicated by "et al." in each succeeding mention, e.g., in the introductory paragraphs to each family chapter and in the genus-group name paragraphs. When authorship is different from the authorship of the work in which the new name is proposed, the citation is listed in the form "Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985", which corresponds to the authorship in the Literature Cited section (in this case, the work can be found under Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985). Spelling of authors' names follows the orthography most commonly used. Transliterations from Cyrillic, Kanji and Chinese alphabets follow this rule and also defer to authors' own personal preference of transliteration if possible, e.g., "Zaitzev" rather than "Zaytsev" or "Zaitsev".

Date/pagination: The date of a work given in the catalogue is that which is cited in the original work. If a name was published in an undated work, a work in which the date was found through external evidence, or a work in which the date given was found to be incorrect, the correct date is given in square brackets in the Literature Cited section, but brackets are omitted from the date in the catalogue text.

In cases where two or more bibliographic references are given for the same name, e.g., "magnus Meunier, 1907c: 198 [1907d: 210, 1907i: 269]", "WILLISTONIELLA Meunier, 1904a: 85 [1904c: 74]", the nomenclatural availability of the name dates from the first reference.

Page numbers cited are those on which the name appears in the original work, except in cases where reprint pagination predates journal issue (having been issued in advance of the journal version of the article). When a work is known to have been reprinted or translated with different pagination, these pages are given in parentheses after the first published version of the name. If the date of the reprint or translation is the same as the original work, it is omitted from the parenthetical pagination, otherwise, the different date is given, e.g., "PROCYRTOSIA Zaitzev, 1986: 817 (1987: 152)", "fragilis Scudder, 1894: 200 (38)".

Changes in combination/taxonomic status: Changes from the original combination and taxonomic status for all names listed are fully annotated. For species-group names that have been transferred from the original nominal genus to another nominal genus, the original genus is placed in parentheses after the page number in its original orthography, whether or not the genus was spelled correctly, e.g., "cruciferella Cockerell, 1917b: 373 (Mongoma)".

For genus-group names that have had changes of taxonomic status (genus to subgenus; subgenus to genus), the original status is placed in parentheses after the page, e.g., "BREMIA Rondani, 1860: 289 (as Cecidomyia subgenus)", "LASIOHELEA Kieffer, 1921: 115 (as genus)".

For species-group names that have had changes in their taxonomic status (species to subspecies, subspecies or variety to species), the original status is placed in parentheses after the page number, e.g., "prolifica Meunier, 1916b: 492 (as vulgaris subspecies).

Type species designation: For nomenclaturally available genus-group names, the type species and the method of fixation is listed after the date and pagination or original taxonomic status. Suppressed and other invalid genus-group names (nomina nuda and incorrect original and subsequent spellings) do not have type-species information listed. Type species are listed in their original binomia with original authorship and date with original orthography (whether or not the spelling was correct). Subgeneric epithets that may have been included in the original establishment of the type species are omitted. The correct nominal type species is listed first with any senior synonyms listed in square brackets, e.g., "Type species: Phronia rustica Winnertz, 1863 [= Mycetophila exigua Zetterstedt, 1852]". If the type species is invalid because of homonymy, the citation takes the following form: "Type species: Geron gibbosus Meigen, 1820 [preoccupied, = Bombylius gibbosus Olivier, 1789]". If the nominal species was misidentified so that the actual type species is different from the proposed type species, it is cited in the following form: "Type species: Mycetophila discoidea Meigen, 1818 [misidentification, = Mycetophila fasciata Meigen, 1804]" where the misidentified type species is Mycetophila discoidea Meigen and the actual type species is Mycetophila faciata Meigen.

Method of fixation of type species follows Articles 68 and 69 of the Code and uses the terms (in order of precedence according to Article 68 and 69): "original designation", "monotypy", "subsequent designation", and "subsequent monotypy". There are no cases of absolute tautonomy in this catalogue. In cases of emendations and new replacement names, the type species is the same as for the genus-group name it emends or replaces, thus the term for fixation used here is "automatic". Genus-group names that have had no previously designated type species and have their first designation in this catalogue are listed on p. 28­p;30 and are suffixed after the type species information with the boldfaced annotation "present designation".

Geographical information: Geographical information for each species follows the date and pagination in the following form: type locality(s); other distribution. When a species-group name was originally described from an extant form, but subsequently found in fossil form, the geographical information is listed in the following form: type locality(s); other extant distribution; fossil distribution.

Type locality: Only the country, island group or state or province is listed depending on the format and is prefaced by an abbreviation of the zoogeographical region in which it occurs (see list of abbreviations for regions). If the original description is not specific as to a particular locality within a larger geographical area, the original orthography of the type locality is listed, e.g., "Ostindische". If more than one locality is included for the species-group name and no lectotype has been designated, all localities are treated as type localities and are separated by an ampersand (&), e.g., "PA: France (Oligocene) & Croatia (Miocene) [C]". In the case of amber from the Baltic region, due to the fact that the derivation of the amber could be from many geographical locations within the region, the term "Baltic" is used.

Other distribution: If localities other than the type locality (i.e., country) are known, they are placed after the type locality in the same form as for type locality.

Non-fossil distribution vs. fossil distribution: Distributional information for extant forms can be distinguished from fossil distributions by the lack of an abbreviation of taphonomy (see below) and by the order of listing in the geographical distribution line as stated above.

Geographical equivalents used in this catalogue: Political divisions separating countries has always been a dynamic process. The Catalogue uses the most current usage of geographical names. Some of the name changes adopted in this catalogue include the following (this list is not meant to be an exhaustive one for geographical equivalents):

	Old Name              Current Name

	Burma                   Myanmar
	Czechoslovakia          Czech Republic
	Dahomey                 Benin
	East Germany            Germany
	Tanganyika              Tanzania
	West Germany            Germany
	Yugoslavia              Bosnia-Hercegovina
                                Yugoslavia (Serbia)

Horizon: Immediately after the geographical distribution information, the geological horizon is listed in parentheses. If the fossil species is known from more than one horizon or locality, the horizon is given for each locality and stratum known. In cases where the exact age of the horizon in which the fossil was found has not been determined, the most specific information known is given, e.g., "(Undetermined Tertiary)" [for strata known only to originate from an unspecified age within the Tertiary.] For specimens found in media that span a number of geological strata, these are listed, e.g., "(Oligocene/Miocene)" or "(Paleocene/ Eocene)".

Taphonomy: After the geological horizon, an abbreviation for the method of fossil preservation is listed in square brackets. For species found preserved in more than one medium, these are all listed separately for each locality concerned. See list of abbreviations for the methods of fossil preservation listed in the catalogue.

Special Notations: Genus-group and species-group names that include extant forms are prefaced by an asterisk (*). Otherwise, all listings are known only from fossil forms.

3. Abbreviations Used:
	AF	=	Afrotropical
	AU	=	Australasian
	LU	=	Location unknown
	NE	=	Nearctic
	NT	=	Neotropical
	OR	=	Oriental
	PA	=	Palearctic
	UK	=	United Kingdom
	USA	=	United States of America

	A	=	Amber
	B	=	Tar pit or brea retrieval
	C	=	Compression or impression
	K	=	Copal
	P	=	Permineralization
	T	=	Trace fossil

Other abbreviations used in the catalogue:
	b.p.		=	before present
	Code		=	International Code of Zoological Nomenclature
	ed(s).		=	editor(s)
	et al.		=	et alii (and others)
	fig(s).		=	figure(s)
	in litt.	=	in litteris
	Mya		=	million years ago
	pers. commun.	=	personal communication
	pers. observ.	=	personal observation
	pl(s).		=	plate(s)
	Ref.		=	Reference(s)
	s. str.		=	sensu stricto (in the strict sense)
	sp(p).		=	species (singular and plural)
	ssp.		=	subspecies
	unpubl.		=	unpublished data

4. List of Alternative Family-Group names:
The Catalogue uses only the currently accepted valid family-group name for each family being treated. In order that outmoded and suppressed family-group names can be equated with the family-group names used in the Catalogue, they are presented below with their nearest taxonomic equivalent or placement in the catalogue.

Old Name		Catalogue Treatment

Allactoneuridae			Mycetophilidae
Antiquamediidae			Antefungivoridae
Archisargidae			Eremochaetidae
Architipulidae			Limoniidae
Astiidae			Asteiidae
Blepharoceridae			Blephariceridae
Bolitophilinae			Bolitophilidae
Borboridae			Sphaeroceridae
Ceroplatinae			Keroplatidae
Chironomapteridae		Chaoboridae
Clythiidae			Platypezidae
Coenomyiidae			Xylophagidae
Cordiluridae			Scathophagidae
Cordyluridae			Scathophagidae
Cramptonomyiidae		Pachyneuridae
Cremifaniidae			Chamaemyiidae
Cylindrotominae			Cylindrotomidae
Cypselidae			Sphaeroceridae
Cyrtidae			Acroceridae
Cyrtosiidae			Mythicomyiidae
Diplopolyneuridae		Limoniidae
Dixamimidae			Chaoboridae
Dorilaidae			Pipunculidae
Dorylaidae			Pipunculidae
Dyspolyneuridae			Protopleciidae
Empidae				Empididae
Eoasilididae			Limoniidae
Erinnidae			Rhagionidae
Fungivoridae			Mycetophilidae
Fungivoritidae			Pleciofungivoridae
Geomyzidae			Opomyzidae
Heleidae			Ceratopogonidae
Helomyzidae			Heleomyzidae
Hesperinidae			Bibionidae
Heteroneuridae			Clusiidae
Heteropezidae			Cecidomyiidae
Hyperoscelididae		Canthyloscelididae
Hypodermatidae			Oestridae
Itonididae			Cecidomyiidae
Larvaevoridae			Tachinidae
Leptidae			Rhagionidae
Leptogastridae			Asilidae
Lestremiidae			Cecidomyiidae
Limoniinae			Limoniidae
Liriopeidae			Ptychopteridae
Lycoriidae			Sciaridae
Macroceratidae			Keroplatidae
Macroceridae			Keroplatidae
Macrochilidae			Tanyderidae
Manotidae			Mycetophilidae
Mesotendipedidae		Chaoboridae
Mycetobiidae			Anisopodidae
Mydaidae			Mydidae
Mydasidae			Mydidae
Mythicomyiinae			Mythicomyiidae
Necromyzidae			Keroplatidae
Nemopalpidae			Psychodidae
Ochthiphilidae			Chamaemyiidae
Ogcodidae			Acroceridae
Olbiogastridae			Anisopodidae
Oligophryneidae			Oligophrynidae
Opetiidae			Platypezidae
Ortalidae			Otitidae
Palaeolimnobiidae		Zhangobiidae
Palaeophoridae			Unplaced Brachycera
Palaeopleciidae			Protopleciidae
Paleostratiomyiidae		Rhagionidae
Paratendipedidae		Serendipidae
Penthetriidae			Bibionidae
Phlebotomidae			Psychodidae
Phragmoligoneuridae		Protopleciidae
Phryneidae			Anisopodidae
Phthiriidae			Bombyliidae
Phyllomyzidae			Milichiidae
Platystomidae			Platystomatidae
Pleciomimidae			Antefungivoridae
Protobrachycerontidae		Vermilionidae
Protobrachyceridae		Vermilionidae
Protolbiogastridae		Anisopodidae
Protoligoneuridae		Protopleciidae
Prototendipedidae		Protendipedidae
Rhaetomyiidae			Chaoboridae
Rhyphidae			Anisopodidae
Sapromyzidae			Lauxaniidae
Scatomyzidae			Scathophagidae
Scopeumatidae			Scathophagidae
Sinemediidae			Antefungivoridae
Solvidae			Xylomyidae
Stenomicridae			Periscelididae
Systropodidae			Bombyliidae
Tanyderophryneidae		Tanyderophrynidae
Tendipedidae			Chironomidae
Trepidariidae			Micropezidae
Trichomyiidae			Psychodidae
Trixoscelididae			Heleomyzidae
Trupaneidae			Tephritidae
Trypaneidae			Tephritidae
Trypetidae			Tephritidae
Tylidae				Micropezidae
Usiidae				Bombyliidae

This page last rev ised 15 December 1996