The family Nemestrinidae, commonly called tangle-veined flies, is a virtually cosmopolitan group of brachycerous flies consisting of about 300 species in over 20 genera. Adults of extant forms can be found hovering, feeding on flowers or resting in the sun. Larvae are internal parasites of either grasshoppers or scarabeid beetles and usually take one year to develop. The first instar is planidial and searches out the host. Larvae pass through 4 instars before pupating.
The fossil record of Nemestrinidae show them to be well diversified by the Jurassic. They may well have originated in the Triassic. Rohdendorf (1968) reviewed the Jurassic forms of the family, chiefly from fossils in the Karatau of Kazakhstan.

Ref.: Bequaert & Carpenter (1936, review of Florissant types); Bequaert (1947, world fossil catalog); Rohdendorf (1968, review of Jurassic taxa); Bernardi (1973, world genera, classification).



ARCHINEMESTRIUS Rohdendorf, 1968: 181. Type species: Archinemestrius karatavicus Rohdendorf, 1968, by original designation.

karatavicus Rohdendorf, 1968: 181. PA: Kazakhstan (Upper Jurassic) [C].


Genus EOHIRMONEURA Rohdendorf

EOHIRMONEURA Rohdendorf, 1968: 187. Type species: Eohirmoneura carpenteri Rohdendorf, 1968, by original designation.

carpenteri Rohdendorf, 1968: 188. PA: Kazakhstan (Upper Jurassic) [C].



*HIRMONEURA Meigen, 1820: 132. Type species: Hirmoneura obscura Wiedemann in Meigen, 1820, by monotypy.
*HERMONEURA Philippi, 1865: 655 (unjustified emendation of Hirmoneura Meigen). Type species: Hirmoneura obscura Wiedemann in Meigen, 1820, automatic.
HIRMONEURITES Cockerell, 1910c: 283. Type species: Hirmoneurites willistoni Cockerell, 1910, by monotypy.

willistoni Cockerell, 1910c: 283 (Hirmoneurites). NE: USA (Oligocene) [C].


*NEORHYNCHOCEPHALUS Lichtwardt, 1909: 512. Type species: Rhynchocephalus volaticus Williston, 1883, by subsequent designation of Bequaert (1930: 287).

melanderi Cockerell, 1908c: 311 (Hirmoneura). NE: USA (Oligocene) [C].
occultator Cockerell, 1908e: 254 (Hirmoneura). NE: USA (Oligocene) [C].
vulcanicus Cockerell, 1908c: 311 (Hirmoneura). NE: USA (Oligocene) [C].


Genus PROHIRMONEURA Handlirsch

PROHIRMONEURA Handlirsch, 1906a: 633. Type species: Prohirmoneura jurassica Handlirsch, 1906, by monotypy.

jurassica Handlirsch, 1906a: 633. PA: Germany (Upper Jurassic) [C].


Genus PROSOECA Schiner

*PROSOECA Schiner, 1867: 311 [1868: 112]. Type species: Nemestrina westermanni Wiedemann, 1821, by original designation.
PALEMBOLUS Scudder, 1878b: 526. Type species: Palembolus florigerus Scudder, 1878, by monotypy.
PALOMBOLUS, error for Palembolus.

florigera Scudder, 1878b: 528 (Palembolus). PA: USA (Oligocene) [C].



PROTONEMESTRIUS Rohdendorf, 1968: 182. Type species: Protonemestrius martynovi Rohdendorf, 1968, by original designation.

bequaerti Rohdendorf, 1968: 239. PA: Kazakhstan (Upper Jurassic) [C].
handlirschi Rohdendorf, 1968: 184. PA: Kazakhstan (Upper Jurassic) [C].
longinasus Rohdendorf, 1968: 184. PA: Kazakhstan (Upper Jurassic) [C].
martynovi Rohdendorf, 1968: 183. PA: Kazakhstan (Upper Jurassic) [C].



SINONEMESTRIUS Hong & Wang, 1990: 149. Type species: Sinonemestrius tuanwangensis Hong & Wang, 1990, by original designation.

tuanwangensis Hong & Wang, 1990: 150. PA: China (Upper Jurassic) [C].
anwangensis. Incorrect original spelling of tuanwangensis (Hong & Wang, 1990: 188).


Questionably Placed in NEMESTRINIDAE


RHAGIONEMESTRIUS Ussatchev, 1968: 621 (381). Type species: Rhagionemestrius rapidus Ussatchev, 1968, by original designation.

rapidus Ussatchev, 1968: 621 (381). PA: Kazakhstan (Upper Jurassic) [C].