Neurochaetids are commonly known as upside-down flies because of their habit of positioning themselves upside-down when resting on vertical surfaces. Adults of extant forms are found most often on leaves and inflorescences and have been observed to feed on pollen. Neurochaetids appear to be closely associated with specific host plants. Larvae of the extant Neurochaeta inversa McAlpine in Australia develop in the watery medium around the infructescence of the host plant, Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) G. Don (Araceae), possibly feeding on microorganisms. McAlpine (1993) gave the most recent listing of host plant associations in the family.
Living species are found primarily in the Southern Hemisphere Old World tropics from Madagascar through Southeast Asia to Australia. Two fossil species are known from Baltic amber.
Ref.: Woodley (1982, phylogenetics of genera), McAlpine (1988a, b, systematics and biology of genera).
ANTHOCLUSIA Hennig, 1965: 165. Type species: Anthoclusia gephyrea
Hennig, 1965, by monotypy.
gephyrea Hennig, 1965: 165. PA: Baltic Region (Eocene/Oligocene) [A].
remotinervis Hennig, 1969a: 24. PA: Baltic Region (Eocene/Oligocene) [A].