The Oestridae, commonly called bot flies or warble flies, are found worldwide. Adults of extant forms have vestigial or completely lack mouthparts and do not feed, relying instead on stored body fats. They are known to congregate at hilltops and other elevated landmarks to mate. Larvae are subcutaneous in a variety of animals, some causing severe debilitation and death in their hosts.

Because the immatures are the most frequently encountered life stage of this fly, this is also the most common stage recorded in the fossil record. A total of seven species in 6 genera have been described from fossils.

The oldest representatives of this family belong to undescribed specimens recorded from the Eocene shales of Green River formation in the Rocky Mountains of North America (Bradley, 1931).


Genus ADIPTERITES Townsend

ADIPTERITES Townsend, 1938: 166. Type species: Dipterites obovatus Heer, 1865, by original designation.

obovatus Heer, 1864: 394 (Dipterites). PA: Switzerland (Miocene) [C].


Genus AGIEBELIA Townsend

GIEBELIA Townsend, 1921: 133. Type species: Giebelia ignota Townsend, 1921, by monotypy. [Preoccupied by Kellogg, 1896.]
AGIEBELIA Townsend, 1933: 420 (new replacement name for Giebelia Townsend). Type species: Giebelia ignota Townsend, 1921, automatic.

ignota Townsend, 1921: 133 (Giebelia). LU (Undetermined Tertiary) [C].


Genus COBBOLDIA Brauer

*COBBOLDIA Brauer, 1887: 218. Type species: Gastrophilus elephantis Cobbold, 1882, by monotypy.

Subgenus MAMONTIA Grunin

MAMONTIA Grunin, 1973: 228. Type species: Cobboldia russanovi Grunin, 1973, by original designation.

russanovi Grunin, 1973: 228. PA: Russia (Siberia) (Pleistocene) [C].



*CUTEREBRA Clark, 1815: 64, 70. Type species: Oestrus cuniculi Clark, 1797, by subsequent designation of Desmarest in Chenu (1859: 247).
LITHOHYPODERMA Townsend, 1917: 129. Type species: Musca acsarides Scudder, 1877, by original designation.

ascarides Scudder, 1877a: 757 (Musca). NE: USA (Eocene) [C].
bibosa Scudder, 1877a: 757 (Musca). NE: USA (Eocene) [C].



*DERMATOBIA Brauer, 1861: 782. Type species: Cuterebra cyaniventris Macquart, 1843 [= Oestrus hominis Linnaeus, 1781, by subsequent designation of Guimarães & Papavero (1966: 228).

hydropica Scudder, 1877a: 757 (Musca). NE: USA (Eocene) [C].



BERENDTIA Townsend, 1921: 133. Type species: Berendtia baltica Townsend, 1921, by monotypy. [Preoccupied by Crossa & Fischer, 1869.]
NOVOBERENDTIA Rapp, 1945: 172 (new replacement name for Berendtia Townsend). Type species: Berendtia baltica Townsend, 1921, automatic.

baltica Townsend, 1921: 133 (Berendtia). PA: Baltic Region (Eocene/Oligocene) [A].


This page last revised 17 November 2001