The family Xylomyidae is very similar in structure and biology
to the Xylophagidae and Rachiceridae. Adults of living forms are
sylvan in habit and larvae have been reared from rotting wood.
Larvae are either saprophagous or predaceous.
The family is known in the fossil record primarily from the Tertiary. However, an older representative of the family, Archisolva Zhang, was recently described from the Upper Jurassic Laiyang Formation of China (Zhang, 1993b).
Zhang (1993b) recently reviewed the fossil representatives of this family and considered the Jurassic Chinese genera Mesosolva Hong and Prosolva Hong not to belong to the Xylomyidae, but possibly a brachyceran family closer to the Rhagionidae. These two genera are listed in this catalog under Unplaced Brachycera.
In addition to the determined forms listed below, the family has been recorded from the Cretaceous Siberian amber (Zherichin & Sukacheva, 1973; Zherichin, 1978: 85). Also, an undetermined specimen of this family is known from the Cretaceous Santana Formation in Brazil (N.L. Evenhuis, pers. observ.) and appears very close to the genus Solva Walker.
Ref.: Zhang (1993b, review of fossil taxa).
ARCHISOLVA Zhang, 1993b: 662. Type species: Archisolva cupressa Zhang, 1993, by original designation.
cupressa Zhang, 1993b: 663. PA: China (Upper Jurassic) [C].
*SOLVA Walker, 1859: 98. Type species: Solva inamoena Walker, 1859, by monotypy.
inornata Melander, 1949: 28. NE: USA (Oligocene) [C].
nana Loew, 1850b: 40 (Arthropeas). PA: Baltic Region (Eocene/Oligocene) [A].
*SUBULA Meigen, 1820: 15. Type species: Xylophagus
maculatus Meigen, 1804, by subsequent designation of Westwood
(1840: 130). [Preoccupied by Subula Schumacher, 1817.]
*XYLOMYA Rondani, 1861b: 11 (new replacement name for Subula Meigen). Type species: Xylophagus maculatus Meigen, 1804, automatic.
*XYLOMYIA Bezzi, 1903: 42 (unjustified emendation of Xylomya Rondani). Type species: Xylophagus maculatus Meigen, 1804, automatic.
moratula Cockerell, 1914a: 101. NE: USA (Oligocene) [C].