Catalog of fossil Diptera of the world (Version 2.0) - Neal L. Evenhuis

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Members of the family Chaoboridae are mosquito-like, nonbiting nematoceran flies. Extant taxa are found worldwide where the larvae are chiefly lacustrine in habit. Larvae of most all species are predaceous and can occur in large planktonic swarms.

Some chaoborids are found frequently in some fossil formations. Species of the genus Chironomaptera Ping (especially gregaria Grabau) are characteristic enough of certain fossil beds and geological horizons that they are used by paleontologists to date certain formations in Siberia, Mongolia, and China.


The oldest known fossils of the family are from the Middle Jurassic deposits of Siberia. Cretaceous chaoborids are known from both compression and amber deposits, but only compression fossils have been described and named (Kalugina, 1986). Whalley (1981) recorded the family from the Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon, Zherichin & Sukacheva (1973) recorded chaoborids from Cretaceous Siberian amber, and Poinar (1992) recorded the family from the Oligocene/Miocene amber of the Dominican Republic. In addition to these records, Wagner (1990) mentioned that possible larvae and pupae of this family have been found in deposits of unspecified age in northern Germany,  Coram & Jepson (2012) recorded an undetermined specimen from the Lower Cretaceous Purbeck Formation in England, and Johnston & Borkent (1998) recorded the pupa of an undetermined species of Chaoborus from the Miocene deposits of Mississippi.


Borkent (1993: 7) stated that the specimen recorded from the Cretaceous Santana Formation in Brazil by Grimaldi (1990) and Maisey (1991) as "Mesotendipedidae" [= Chironomapterinae] is actually a chironomid and not a chaoborid. Worthy of further review is the claim by Saether (1992) that the fossil genus Chironomaptera is synonymous with Chaoborus. The genera Dixamima and Rhaetomyia (formerly in Dixamimidae and Rhaetomyiidae, respectively in the original 1994 catalog version) are included in Chaoboridae here.

Ref.: Borkent (1993, world catalog).





ASTROCORETHRA Kalugina, 1986: 117. Type species: Astrocorethra mjangadica Kalugina, 1986, by original designation.

gurvanica Kalugina, 1986: 118. PA: Mongolia (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) [C].

khukhmortica Kalugina, 1986: 119. PA: Mongolia (Lower Cretaceous) [C].

mjangadica Kalugina, 1986: 118. PA: Mongolia (Lower Cretaceous) [C].

      mjangatica. Incorrect original spelling of mjangadica (Sinitsa, 1986: 33, 34).



Genus BALEIOMYIA Kalugina


BALEIOMYIA Kalugina, 1993: 119. Type species: Baleiomyia discussoria Kalugina, 1993, by original designation.

discussoria Kalugina, 1993: 120. PA: Russia (Siberia) (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) [C].



Genus CHACHOTOSHA Lukashevich


CHACHOTOSHA Lukashevich, 1996b: 57(553). Type species: Chachotosha probatus Lukashevich, 1996, by original designation.

perplexus Lukashevich, 1996b: 58(573). PA: Mongolia (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) [C]. 

probatus Lukashevich, 1996b: 57(555). PA: Mongolia (Upper Jurassic/.Lower Cretaceous) [C].



Genus CHAOBORUS Lichtenstein


*CHAOBORUS Lichtenstein, 1800: 174. Type species: Chaoborus antisepticus Lichtenstein, 1800 [= Tipula crystallina De Geer, 1776], by monotypy.

*CORETHRA Meigen, 1803: 260. Type species: Tipula culiciformis De Geer, 1776 [misidentification & preoccupied, = Tipula crystallina De Geer, 1776], by monotypy.

CULICITES Heyden, 1862: 79. Type species Culicites tertiarius Heyden, 1862, by monotypy.

ciliatus Meunier, 1904b: 89 (Corethra). PA: Baltic Region (Eocene/Oligocene) [A].

rarus Seredszus & Wichard in Wichard et al., 2009: 184. PA: Baltic Region (Eocene) [A].

tertiarius Heyden, 1862: 79 (Culicites). PA: Germany (Oligocene) [C].

Unidentified sp. - OR: Burma (Upper Cretaceous) [A] (Edwards, 1923: 152).

Unidentified sp. - NE: USA (Mississippi) (Eocene) [C] (Johnston & Borkent, 1998: 491).



Genus CHAOBURMUS Lukashevich


CHAOBURMUS Lukashevich, 2000: 48. Type species: Chaoburmus breviusculus Lukashevich, 2000, by original designation.

amphilogos Lukashevich, 2011: 29(624). PA: Mongolia (Upper Jurassic) [C].

breviusculus Lukashevich, 2000: 49. OR: Burma (Upper Cretaceous) [A].

victimaartis Lukashevich, 2000: 50. OR: Burma (Upper Cretaceous) [A].





CHIRONOMAPTERA Ping, 1928: 33. Type species: Samarura gregaria Grabau, 1923, by original designation.

PETIOLATENDIPES Lin, 1980: 228. Type species: Petiolatendipes shouchangensis Lin, 1980 [= Chironomaptera vesca Kalugina, 1980], by original designation.

MESOTENDIPES Hong, 1982: 161 (unjustified replacement name for Chironomaptera Ping). Type species: Samarura gregaria Grabau, 1923, automatic.

bucucunica Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985: 70. Russia (Siberia) (Middle Jurassic) [C].

collessi Jell & Duncan, 1986: 172. AU: Australia (Lower Cretaceous) [C].

gobiensis Cockerell, 1924c: 142 (Chironomopsis). PA: Mongolia (Lower Cretaceous) [C].

gregaria Grabau, 1923: 178 (Samarura). PA: China (Upper Jurassic) [C]; PA: Mongolia (Upper Jurassic) [C], PA: Russia (Siberia) (Upper Jurassic) [C].

      melanura Ping, 1928: 35. PA: China (Upper Jurassic) [C].

karabonica Kalugina, 1993: 124. PA: Russia (Siberia) (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) [C].

scobloi Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985: 67. PA: Russia (Siberia) (Middle Jurassic) [C].

vesca Kalugina, 1980a: 62. PA: Mongolia (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) [C]; PA: China (Upper Jurassic) [C].

      shouchangensis Lin, 1980: 228 (Petiolatendipes). PA: China (Upper Jurassic) [C].

Unidentified sp. - PA: Russia (Siberia) (Upper Cretaceous) [A] (Zherichin, 1978: 82).

Unidentified sp. - PA: China (Lower Cretaceous) [C] (Hong, 1995: 11).



Genus DIXAMIMA Rohdendorf


DIXAMIMA Rohdendorf, 1951: 58, 59 (1959a: 108) [1962: 314 (1991: 456)]. Nomen nudum.

DIXAMIMA Rohdendorf, 1964: 208. Type species: Dixamima villosa Rohdendorf, 1951, by monotypy.

[See Sabrosky (1999) for explanation on the status of unavailability and availability of various proposals of the genus-group name. The species-group name is available from Rohdendorf (1951).]

villosa Rohdendorf, 1951: 58, 59 [1959a: 108; 1962: 315; 1991: 456]. PA: Kazakhstan (Upper Jurassic) [C].





EOCHAOBORITES Hong, 2002a: 157. [Unavailable name; genus-group name based on an unavailable species-group name.]

xui Hong, 2002a: 157. [Unavailable name; species-group name proposed after 1999 without specified type depository.]



Genus GEDANOBORUS Szadziewski & Gilka


GEDANOBORUS Szadziewski & Giłka, 2007: 194. Type species: Gedanoborus kerneggeri Szadziewski & Giłka, by original designation.

kerneggeri Szadziewski & Giłka, 2007: 194. PA: Baltic Region (Eocene) [A].

resinatus Szadziewski & Wichard, 2009: 190. PA: Baltic Region (Eocene) [A].



Genus HELOKRENIA Kalugina


HELOKRENIA Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985: 80. Type species: Helkrenia nana Kalugina, 1985, by original designation.

nana Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985: 80. PA: Russia (Siberia) (Middle Jurassic) [C].





HYPSOCORETHRA Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985: 74. Type species: Hypsocorethra toficola Kalugina, 1985, by original designation.

jurassica Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985: 78. PA: Russia (Siberia) (Middle/Upper Jurassic) [C].

toficola Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985: 75. PA: Russia (Siberia) (Middle Jurassic) [C].

      tufficola. Incorrect original spelling of toficola (Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985: 74).



Genus IYAIYAI Evenhuis


TRICHIA Hong, 1981: 28. Type species: Trichia gracilis Hong, 1981, by original designation. [Preoccupied by Hoffman, 1790.]

IYAIYAI Evenhuis, 1994: 227 (new replacement name for Trichia Hong). Type species: Trichia gracilis Hong, 1981, automatic.

TRISHIA. Incorrect original spelling of Trichia (Hong, 1981: 30).

FUSHUNOTRICHIA Hong, 2002a: 160 (unnecessary new replacement name for Iyaiyai Evenhuis, 1994). Type species: Trichia gracilis Hong, 1981, automatic.

gracilis Hong, 1981: 28 (Trichia). PA: China (Eocene) [A].



Genus LIBANOBORUS Azar, Waller & Nel


LIBANOBORUS Azar, Waller & Nel, 2009: 29. Type species: Libanoborus lukashevichae Azar, Waller & Nel, 2009, by original designation.

lukashevichae Azar, Waller, & Nel, 2009: 30. PA: Lebanon (Lower Cretaceous) [A].

      lukashevichi. Incorrect original spelling of lukashevichae (Azar, Waller, & Nel, 2009).



Genus MESOCHAOBORUS Zhang, Zhang, Liu & Shangguan


MESOCHAOBORUS Zhang et al., 1986: 19. Type species: Leptoplecia zhangshanyingensis Hong, 1984, by original designation.

pallens Zhang et al., 1986: 23. PA: China (Upper Jurassic) [C].

zhangshanyingensis Hong, 1984b: 177 (Leptoplecia). PA: China (Upper Jurassic) [C].





MESOCORETHRA Kalugina, 1993: 121. Type species: Mesocorethra levis Kalugina, 1993, by original designation.

cincta Lukashevich, 2011: 30(625). PA: Mongolia (Upper Jurassic) [C].

levis Kalugina, 1993: 122. PA: Russia (Siberia) (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) [C].





*MOCHLONYX Loew, 1844: 121. Type species Corethra velutina Ruthe, 1831, by monotypy.

atavus Loew, 1861: 93 (1864: 315). Nomen nudum.

secundus Seredszus & Wichard in Wichard et al., 2009: 187. PA: Baltic Region (Eocene) [A].

sepultus Meunier, 1902c: 199. PA: Baltic Region (Eocene/Oligocene) [A].

      sepultus Loew, 1844: 121. Nomen nudum.



Genus PALEOMOCHLONYX Seredszus & Wichard


PALEOMOCHLONYX Seredszus & Wichard in Wichard et al., 2009: 193. Type species: Palaeomochlonyx aestimabilis Seredszus & Wichard, 2009, by original designation.

aestimabilis Seredszus & Wichard, 2009: 193. PA: Baltic Region (Eocene) [A].





PRAECHAOBORUS Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985: 70. Type species: Praechaoborus tugnuicus Kalugina, 1985, by original designation.

tugnuicus Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985: 71. PA: Russia (Siberia) (Middle/Upper Jurassic) [C].

udaensis Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985: 73. PA: Russia (Siberia) (Middle Jurassic) [C].



Genus RHAETOMYIA Rohdendorf


RHAETOMYIA Rohdendorf, 1962: 318 (1991: 462). Type species: Rhaetomyia necopinata Rohdendorf, 1962, by original designation.

herrigi Ansorge, 1996a: 83. PA: Germany (Lower Jurassic) [C].

necopinata Rohdendorf, 1962: 318 (1991: 462). PA: Kirghizistan (Lower Jurassic) [C].

?Unidentified sp. - PA: Russia (Siberia) (Middle Jurassic) [C] (Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985: 12).



Genus TAIMYBORUS Lukashevich


TAIMYBORUS Lukashevich, 1999: 59(58). Type species: Taimyborus aequiarticulatus Lukashevich, 1999, by original designation.

aequiarticulatus Lukashevich, 1999: 59(58). PA: Russia (Siberia) (Upper Cretaceous) [A].



Unplaced Species of CHAOBORIDAE


argillaceus Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev, 1985: 81 ("Chaoborites"). PA: Russia (Siberia) (Middle Jurassic) [C].

exita Scudder, 1877a: 744 (Corethra). NE: USA (Eocene) [C].





This page last revised 2 April 2014