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Diopsidae, commonly known as stalk-eyed flies, consist of living forms that are generally well-distributed throughout the Old World tropics and fossil species that are known only from the cooler temperate to subtropical palaeolatitudes. There are approximately 160 species known in some 15 genera. Biologies have only been documented for a few species. Adults can be found on streamside vegetation, sometimes in large numbers. Larvae of some species have been recorded as shoot borers of rice. In addition to the determined taxa listed below, Schumann & Wendt (1989: 42) recorded undetermined material of Diopsidae from the Miocene Bitterfeld amber deposits of Germany, Kohring & Schlüter (1989) recorded a possible diopsid from the Pliocene Simetits amber deposits of Sicily, and Schuman (1994) recorded Prosphyracephala succini from Miocene Saxon amber. Kotrba (2004) demonstrated the usefulness of including diopsid fossils into phylogenetic analyses in order to show evolution of sexual dimorphism.
Ref: Kotrba (2009, review of fossil Prosphyracephala).
Genus DIOPSIS Linnaeus
*DIOPSIS Linnaeus, 1775: 5. Type species: Diopsis ichneumonea Linnaeus, 1775, by monotypy.
Unidentified sp. - PA: Baltic Region (Eocene) [A] (Hennig, 1965: 64).
Genus PROSPHYRACEPHALA Hennig
PROSPHYRACEPHALA Hennig, 1965 : 63. Type species: Sphyracephala breviata Meunier, 1903, by original designation.
kerneggeri Kotrba, 2009: 190. PA: PA: Baltic Region (Eocene/Oligocene) [A]
rubiensis Lewis, 1971a: 959. NE: USA (Oligocene) [C].
succini Loew, 1873b: 102 (Sphyracephala). PA: Baltic Region (Eocene) [A].
breviata Meunier, 1902d: 404 (Sphyracephala). PA: Baltic Region (Eocene) [A].
Unidentified sp. - PA: France (Oligocene) [C] (Lutz, 1985: 75; Feijen, 1989: 96).