The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands:
Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status
Version 2 - 1 January 2017

 Robert L. Pyle and Peter Pyle

Southeastern ("Main") Hawaiian Island Checklist

The following checklist includes 276 bird species documented as occurring in the Southeastern Hawaiian Islands, as recorded on each island or island group, either naturally or through introduction and establishment of a viable breeding population for at least 15 years. See Primary Checklist for more information. Pelagic records are recorded for island groups if the species was seen from the island or during a one-day boat trip from the island or an adjacent island; five species, listed below, have been recorded in Southeastern Hawaiian Island waters from research vessels at sea but not on or from any island or island group.

R - Resident (native)
N - Naturalized (non-native), established and breeding resident
n - Naturalized (non-native), visitor from other island or island group
B - Breeding Visitor
M - Migrant through the islands (some may winter) or non-breeding visitor (often seabirds)
W - Winter Resident (some may migrate through the islands)
V - Vagrant
X - Extinct
x - Extirpated from that island or island group

For species of breeding seabirds, click on the common name or the status code for O'ahu to access population size estimates.


ANATIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Greater White-fronted Goose   V V V     V V
Emperor Goose   V V V V   V V
Snow Goose   V V V     V V
Brant   V V V     V V
Cackling Goose   W W W     W W
Canada Goose     V V        
Hawaiian Goose   N N N     R R
Tundra Swan   V   V     V  
Gadwall   W W W     W W
Eurasian Wigeon   W W W     W W
American Wigeon   W W W     W W
Mallard   N W W N   N N
Hawaiian Duck R R R R   R R
Blue-winged Teal   W W W     W W
Cinnamon Teal   V V V     V V
Northern Shoveler W W W W W M W W
Northern Pintail W W W W W   W W
Garganey   V V V     V V
Baikal Teal   V            
Green-winged Teal   W W W     W W
Canvasback   V V V     V V
Redhead   V V V     V V
Ring-necked Duck   W W W W   W W
Tufted Duck   V V V     V V
Greater Scaup   W W W     W W
Lesser Scaup W W W W W   W W
Surf Scoter   V V          
Long-tailed Duck     V         V
Bufflehead   W W W W   W W
Common Goldeneye     V V     V V
Hooded Merganser   V V V     V V
Common Merganser   V V     V
Red-breasted Merganser   V V V     V V
Ruddy Duck     V       V V
ODONTOPHORIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
California Quail N N x N     N N
Gambel's Quail         N N   N
PHASIANIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Chukar   N x N N   N N
Gray Francolin   N N N N   N N
Black Francolin N N N N N   N N
Erckel's Francolin   N N N N   N N
Japanese Quail N N N N N   N N
Red Junglefowl N N x x N   x x
Kalij Pheasant               N
Ring-necked Pheasant N N N N N N N N
Indian Peafowl N N N x x   N N
Wild Turkey N x x N N   N N
GAVIIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Pacific Loon     V          
PODICIPEDIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Pied-billed Grebe   V V V     V W
Horned Grebe   V            
Red-necked Grebe   V            
Eared Grebe   V V       V  
DIOMEDEIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Laysan Albatross B B B M M M M M
Black-footed Albatross B M M M     M M
Short-tailed Albatross   M            
PROCELLARIIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Northern Fulmar   W W         W
Kermadec Petrel   M M         M
Murphy's Petrel   M M       M M
Mottled Petrel   M M M     M M
Juan Fernandez Petrel M M M         M
Hawaiian Petrel M B M B B B B B
White-necked Petrel   M M   M     M
Bonin Petrel M   M          
Black-winged Petrel M M M       M M
Cook's Petrel   M M       M M
Stejneger's Petrel     M   M     M
Tahiti Petrel   M           M
Bulwer Petrel B B B B B B B B
Jouanin's Petrel                
Streaked Shearwater   V            
Pink-footed Shearwater                
Flesh-footed Shearwater               M
Wedge-tailed Shearwater B B B B B B B B
Buller's Shearwater M M M       M M
Sooty Shearwater M M M       M M
Short-tailed Shearwater   M           M
Christmas Shearwater B M B M     M M
Newell's Shearwater B B M B M M B B
HYDROBATIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Wilson's Storm-Petrel                
Leach's Storm-Petrel W W W W   W W W
Band-rumped Storm-Petrel M B M       M B
Tristram's Storm-Petrel   M M          
PHAETHONTIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
White-tailed Tropicbird B B B B B M B B
Red-billed Tropicbird V V V          
Red-tailed Tropicbird B B B B B B M B
FREGATIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Great Frigatebird M M B M M M M M
Lesser Frigatebird   V V       V  
SULIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Masked Booby B M B M M   M M
Nazca Booby     V          
Brown Booby B B B M M B M M
Red-footed Booby B B B   M   M M
ARDEIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
American Bittern     V          
Great Blue Heron   V V V     V V
Great Egret   V V       V  
Snowy Egret     V       V V
Little Blue Heron     V          
Cattle Egret N N N N n n N N
Green Heron   V V       V V
Black-crowned Night-Heron M R R R M M R R
THRESKIORNITHIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
White-faced Ibis   V V V     V V
PANDIONIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Osprey W W W W W   W W
ACCIPITRIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
White-tailed Eagle V V            
Northern Harrier   V V V     V V
Hawaiian Hawk               R
Rough-legged Hawk           V    
Golden Eagle   V            
RALLIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Sora     V         V
Hawaiian Rail               X
Common Gallinule x R R x     x x
Hawaiian Coot R R R R R   R R
GRUIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Sandhill Crane     V          
RECURVIROSTRIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Black-necked Stilt R R R R R M R R
American Avocet             V  
CHARADRIIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Black-bellied Plover   W W W   W W W
Pacific Golden-Plover W W W W W W W W
Common Ringed Plover   V            
Semipalmated Plover   W W W     W W
Killdeer   V V V     V V
SCOLOPACIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Terek Sandpiper     V          
Common Sandpiper               V
Spotted Sandpiper   V V V     V V
Solitary Sandpiper     V       V V
Gray-tailed Tattler   V V         V
Wandering Tattler W W W W W W W W
Spotted Redshank               V
Greater Yellowlegs   V V V     V V
Willet   V V       V V
Lesser Yellowlegs   M M M     M M
Marsh Sandpiper     V V       V
Wood Sandpiper   V            
Whimbrel   M W W     W W
Bristle-thighed Curlew W M W W M   M M
Black-tailed Godwit     V       V  
Hudsonian Godwit     V V        
Bar-tailed Godwit   M M M     M M
Marbled Godwit     V       V V
Ruddy Turnstone W W W W W W W W
Red Knot     V       V V
Surfbird     V          
Ruff   M M M     M M
Sharp-tailed Sandpiper   M M M M   M M
Stilt Sandpiper     V         V
Curlew Sandpiper   V V       V V
Red-necked Stint     V V     V V
Sanderling W W W W W W W W
Dunlin   W W W     W W
Baird's Sandpiper   V V       V  
Little Stint     V          
Least Sadpiper   M W W     W W
White-rumped Sandpiper     V          
Buff-breasted Sandpiper   V V         V
Pectoral Sandpiper   M M M M   M M
Semipalmated Sandpiper   V V V     V  
Western Sandpiper   M W M     W M
Short-billed Dowitcher   V V V     V  
Long-billed Dowitcher   W W W M   W W
Wilson's Snipe   W W W     W W
Common Snipe   V V       V  
Wilson's Phalarope   V V V     V V
Red-necked Phalarope   V V       V  
Red Phalarope   W W     M W W
STERCORARAIIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
South Polar Skua M M M         M
Pomarine Jaeger   M W W W   W W
Parasitic Jaeger     M         M
Long-tailed Jaeger   M M         M
ALCIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Ancient Murrelet     V          
LARIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Black-legged Kittiwake     V          
Bonaparte's Gull   V V V     V V
Black-headed Gull     V       V  
Laughing Gull   W W W     W W
Franklin's Gull   M M M M   M M
Mew Gull     V          
Ring-billed Gull   W W W W   W W
Western Gull     V          
California Gull     V       V  
Herring Gull   V V       V V
Slaty-backed Gull   V V          
Glaucous-winged Gull W W W M W   W W
Glaucous Gull   V V         V
Brown Noddy B M B M M   M M
Black Noddy B B B B B B B B
Blue-gray Noddy M M           M
White Tern B M B M M   M M
Sooty Tern B M B M M M M M
Gray-backed Tern B M B       M M
Bridled Tern V             V
Least Tern     M       M B
Gull-billed Tern     V V     V  
Caspian Tern   V V       V V
Black Tern   V V V     V V
White-winged Tern       V        
Common Tern   V V V     V V
Arctic Tern   M M       M M
Great Crested Tern     V          
Sandwich Tern     V          
Elegant Tern               V
PTEROCLIDIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse               N
COLUMBIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Rock Pigeon   N N N N n N N
Spotted Dove N N N N N N N N
Zebra Dove N N N N N N N N
Mourning Dove n n N n   n N N
TYTONIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Barn Owl N N N N N N N N
STRIGIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Snowy Owl     V          
Short-eared Owl R R R R R R R R
APODIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Mariana Swiftlet     N          
ALCEDINIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Belted Kingfisher   V V V     V V
FALCONIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Merlin   V V         V
Peregrine Falcon W W W W   W W W
PSITTACIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Mitred Parakeet             N  
Red-masked Parakeet     N         N
Red-crowned Parrot     N       N  
Rose-ringed Parakeet   N N          
Pale-headed Rosella             x  
CORVIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Hawaiian Crow               R
MONARCHIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Kaua'i 'Elepaio   R            
O'ahu 'Elepaio     R          
Hawai'i 'Elepaio               R
ALAUDIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Eurasian Skylark N N N N N N N N
HIRUNDIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Barn Swallow               V
PARIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Varied Tit   x x          
PYCNONOTIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Red-vented Bulbul     N n   n n n
Red-whiskered Bulbul     N          
CETTIIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Japanese Bush-Warbler   N N N N n N N
ZOSTROPIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Japanese White-eye N N N N N N N N
TIMALIIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Greater Necklaced Laughingthrush   N            
Hwamei   R R   n   R R
Red-billed Leiothrix   x N N     N N
MUSCICAPIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
White-rumped Shama N N N N n   n  
TURDIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Kama'o   X            
'Amaui     X          
Oloma'o       X X      
Oma'o               R
Puaiohi   R            
MIMIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Northern Mockingbird N N N N N N N N
STURNIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Common Myna N N N N N n N N
MOHOIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Kauai 'O'o   X            
Oahu 'O'o     X          
Bishop's 'O'o       X        
Hawaii 'O'o               X
Kioea               X
THRAUPIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Red-crested Cardinal N N N N N N N n
Yellow-billed Cardinal               N
Saffron Finch     N         N
Yellow-faced Grassquit     N          
CARDINALIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Northern Cardinal N N N N N N N N
ICTERIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Western Meadowlark   N            
FRINGILLIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Po'o-uli             X  
'Akikiki   R            
O'ahu 'Alauahio     X          
Kakawahie       X        
Maui 'Alauahio             R  
Palila               R
Kona Grosbeak               X
Lesser Koa-Finch               X
Greater Koa-Finch               X
'Ula-'ai-hawane               X
'Akohekohe       x     R  
'Apapane M R R R R M R R
'I'iwi M R R x x   R R
Hawai'i Mamo               X
Black Mamo       X        
'O'u   X X X X   X X
Lanai Hookbill         X      
Maui Parrotbill             R  
Kaua'i Nukupu'u   X            
O'ahu Nukupu'u     X          
Maui Nukupu'u             X  
Akiapola'au               R
Lesser 'Akialoa               X
Kaua'i 'Akialoa   X            
O'ahu 'Akialoa     X          
Maui-nui 'Akialoa         X      
'Anianiau   R            
Hawai'i 'Amakihi       R x   R R
O'ahu 'Amakihi     R          
Kaua'i 'Amakihi   R            
Greater 'Amakihi               X
Hawaii Creeper               R
'Akeke'e   R            
O'ahu 'Akepa     X          
Maui 'Akepa       X        
Hawai'i 'Akepa               R
House Finch N N N N N N N N
Yellow-fronted Canary     N         N
PASSERIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
House Sparrow N N N N N N N N
ESTRILIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Lavender Waxbill     N         N
Orange-cheeked Waxbill     N       N  
Common Waxbill   n N n     n n
Red Avadavat n N N       n N
African Silverbill N N N N N N N N
Java Sparrow   N N N n   N N
Scaly-breasted Munia N N N N N N N N
Chestnut Munia   N N n n   N n
 
TOTAL SPECIES 73 188 218 139 78 46 172 198

Version 2 completed Jan 2017 and will not be updated for content until future versions are posted (typos and bad links will be fixed). Comments, errors, typos, bad links, updated information, any other suggestions: Please contact Peter Pyle at ppyle@bishopmuseum.org.

Citation: Pyle, R.L., and P. Pyle. 2017. The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands: Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status. B.P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI, U.S.A. Version 2 (1 January 2017) http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/birds/rlp-monograph

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