The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands:
Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status

Robert L. Pyle and Peter Pyle

Southeastern ("Main") Hawaiian Island Checklist

The following checklist includes 276 bird species documented as occurring in the Southeastern Hawaiian Islands, as recorded on each island or island group, either naturally or through introduction and establishment of a viable breeding population for at least 15 years. See Primary Checklist for more information. Pelagic records are recorded for island groups if the species was seen from the island or during a one-day boat trip from the island or an adjacent island; five species, listed below, have been recorded in Southeastern Hawaiian Island waters from research vessels at sea but not on or from any island or island group.

R - Resident (native)
N - Naturalized (non-native), established and breeding resident
n - Naturalized (non-native), visitor from other island or island group
B - Breeding Visitor
M - Migrant through the islands (some may winter) or non-breeding visitor (often seabirds)
W - Winter Resident (some may migrate through the islands)
V - Vagrant
X - Extinct
x - Extirpated from that island or island group

For species of breeding seabirds, click on the common name or the status code for O'ahu to access population size estimates.


ANATIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Greater White-fronted Goose   V V V     V V
Emperor Goose   V V   V   V V
Snow Goose   V V V     V V
Brant   V V V     V V
Cackling Goose   W W W     W W
Canada Goose     V V        
Hawaiian Goose   N N N     R R
Tundra Swan   V   V     V  
Gadwall   W W     W W
Eurasian Wigeon   W W W     W W
American Wigeon   W W W     W W
Mallard   N W W N   N N
Hawaiian Duck R R R R   R R
Blue-winged Teal   W W W     W B
Cinnamon Teal   V V V     V V
Northern Shoveler W W W W W W W W
Northern Pintail W W W W W   W W
Garganey   W W W     W W
Baikal Teal   V            
Green-winged Teal   W W W     W W
Canvasback   V V V     V V
Redhead   V V V     V V
Ring-necked Duck   W W W W   W W
Tufted Duck   V V V     V V
Greater Scaup   W W W     W W
Lesser Scaup W W W W W   W W
Surf Scoter   V V          
Long-tailed Duck     V         V
Bufflehead   W W W W   W W
Common Goldeneye       V     V V
Barrow Goldeneye   V            
Hooded Merganser   V V V       V
Common Merganser   V V     V
Red-breasted Merganser   V V V     V V
Ruddy Duck     V       V V
ODONTOPHORIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
California Quail N N x N     N N
Gambel Quail         N N   N
PHASIANIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Chukar   N x N N   N N
Gray Francolin   N N N N   N N
Black Francolin N N N N N   N N
Erckel Francolin   N N N N   N N
Japanese Quail N N N N N   N N
Red Junglefowl N N x x N   x x
Kalij Pheasant               N
Ring-necked Pheasant N N N N N N N N
Common Peafowl N N N x x   N N
Wild Turkey N x x N N   N N
GAVIIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Pacific Loon     V          
PODICIPEDIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Pied-billed Grebe   V V       V B
Horned Grebe   V            
Red-necked Grebe   V            
Eared Grebe     V       V  
DIOMEDEIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Laysan Albatross B B B M M M M M
Black-footed Albatross B M M         M
Short-tailed Albatross   M            
PROCELLARIIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Northern Fulmar   W W         W
Tahiti Petrel                
Kermadec Petrel   M M         M
Murphy Petrel   M M       M M
Mottled Petrel   M M M       M
Juan Fernandez Petrel M M M         M
Hawaiian Petrel M B M B B B B B
White-necked Petrel   M           M
Bonin Petrel     M          
Black-winged Petrel M M M       M M
Cook Petrel   M M         M
Stejneger Petrel     M   M     M
Pycroft Petrel                
Bulwer Petrel B B B B B B B B
Streaked Shearwater   V            
Pink-footed Shearwater                
Flesh-footed Shearwater               M
Wedge-tailed Shearwater B B B B B B B B
Buller Shearwater M M M         M
Sooty Shearwater   M M       M M
Short-tailed Shearwater   M M         M
Christmas Shearwater B M B M     M M
Newell Shearwater B B M B M M B B
HYDROBATIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Wilson Storm-Petrel                
Leach Storm-Petrel W W W     W W W
Band-rumped Storm-Petrel M B M       M B
Tristram Storm-Petrel                
PHAETHONTIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
White-tailed Tropicbird B B B B B M B B
Red-billed Tropicbird V V V          
Red-tailed Tropicbird B B B B B B M M
SULIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Masked Booby B M B M     M M
Nazca Booby     V          
Brown Booby B B B M M B M M
Red-footed Booby B B B   M   M M
FREGATIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Great Frigatebird M M B M M M M M
Lesser Frigatebird   V V       V  
ARDEIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Great Blue Heron V V V V     V V
Great Egret   V V       V  
Snowy Egret     V       V V
Little Blue Heron     V          
Cattle Egret N N N N n n N N
Green Heron   V V       V V
Black-crowned Night-Heron M R R R M M R R
THRESKIORNITHIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
White-faced Ibis   V V V     V V
ACCIPITRIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Osprey W W W W W   W W
White-tailed Eagle V V            
Northern Harrier   V V V     V V
Hawaiian Hawk               R
Rough-legged Hawk           V    
Golden Eagle   V            
FALCONIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Merlin   V V         V
Peregrine Falcon W W W W   W W W
RALLIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Sora     V         V
Hawaiian Rail               X
Common Moorhen x R R x     x x
Hawaiian Coot R R R R R   R R
GRUIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Sandhill Crane     V          
CHARADRIIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Black-bellied Plover   W W W   W W W
Pacific Golden-Plover W W W W W W W W
Common Ringed Plover   V            
Semipalmated Plover   W W W     W W
Killdeer   V V       V V
RECURVIROSTRIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Black-necked Stilt R R R R R M R R
American Avocet             V  
SCOLOPACIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Spotted Sandpiper   V V V     V V
Solitary Sandpiper     V         V
Gray-tailed Tattler     V         V
Wandering Tattler W W W W W W W W
Greater Yellowlegs   V V       V V
Willet   V V       V V
Lesser Yellowlegs   M M M     M M
Marsh Sandpiper     V          
Whimbrel     W       W W
Bristle-thighed Curlew W M W W M   M M
Black-tailed Godwit     V       V  
Hudsonian Godwit     V          
Bar-tailed Godwit   M M       M M
Marbled Godwit     V       V V
Ruddy Turnstone W W W W W W W W
Red Knot     V       V V
Sanderling W W W W W W W W
Semipalmated Sandpiper   V V V     V  
Western Sandpiper   M W M     W M
Red-necked Stint     V V     V V
Little Stint     V          
Least Sandpiper   M W M     W W
White-rumped Sandpiper     V          
Baird Sandpiper   V V       V  
Pectoral Sandpiper   M M M     M M
Sharp-tailed Sandpiper   M M M M   M M
Dunlin   W W W     W W
Curlew Sandpiper   V V       V V
Stilt Sandpiper     V          
Buff-breasted Sandpiper   V V         V
Ruff   M M M     M M
Short-billed Dowitcher   V V       V  
Long-billed Dowitcher   W W W M   W W
Wilson Snipe   W W W     W W
Common Snipe   V V       V  
Wilson Phalarope   V V V     V V
Red-necked Phalarope   V V          
Red Phalarope   W W     M W W
LARIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Black-legged Kittiwake     V          
Bonaparte Gull   V V V     V V
Black-headed Gull     V       V  
Laughing Gull   W W W     W W
Franklin Gull   M M M     M M
Ring-billed Gull   W W W W   W W
Western Gull     V          
California Gull     V       V  
Herring Gull   V V       V V
Slaty-backed Gull     V          
Glaucous-winged Gull W W W M W   W W
Glaucous Gull   V V         V
Brown Noddy B M B M M   M M
Black Noddy B B B B B B B B
Blue-gray Noddy V              
White Tern B M B   M   M M
Sooty Tern B M B M M M M M
Gray-backed Tern B M B          
Least Tern     M       M M
Gull-billed Tern     V V     V  
Caspian Tern   V V       V V
Black Tern   V V       V V
Common Tern   V V V     V V
Arctic Tern   M M       M M
Great Crested Tern     V          
Sandwich Tern     V          
STERCORARAIIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
South Polar Skua M M M         M
Pomarine Jaeger   M W W W   W W
Parasitic Jaeger     M         M
Long-tailed Jaeger   M M         M
ALCIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Ancient Murrelet     V          
PTEROCLIDIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse               N
COLUMBIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Rock Pigeon   N N N N n N N
Spotted Dove N N N N N N N N
Zebra Dove N N N N N N N N
Mourning Dove   n N n   n N N
PSITTACIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Pale-headed Rosella             x  
Rose-ringed Parakeet   N N         N
Mitred Parakeet             N  
Red-masked Parakeet     N          
Red-crowned Parrot     N          
TYTONIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Barn Owl N N N N N N N N
STRIGIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Short-eared Owl R R R R R R R R
APODIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Mariana Swiftlet     N          
ALCEDINIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Belted Kingfisher   V V V     V V
CORVIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Hawaiian Crow               R
MONARCHIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
'Elepaio   R R         R
ALAUDIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Sky Lark N N N N N N N N
HIRUNDIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Barn Swallow               V
PARIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Varied Tit   x x          
PYCNONOTIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Red-vented Bulbul     N n   n n n
Red-whiskered Bulbul     N          
SYLVIIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Japanese Bush-Warbler   N N N N n N N
MUSCICAPIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
White-rumped Shama N N N N n      
TURDIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Kama'o   X            
'Amaui     X          
Oloma'o       X X      
Oma'o               R
Puaiohi   R            
TIMALIIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Greater Necklaced Laughingthrush   N            
Gray-sided Laughingthrush     x          
Hwamei   R R   n   R R
Red-billed Leiothrix   x N N     N N
ZOSTROPIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Japanese White-eye N N N N N N N N
MIMIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Northern Mockingbird N N N N N N N N
STURNIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Common Myna N N N N N n N N
MOHOIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Kauai 'O'o   X            
Oahu 'O'o     X          
Bishop 'O'o       X        
Hawaii 'O'o               X
Kioea               X
EMBERIZIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Yellow-faced Grassquit     N          
Saffron Finch   N N         N
Red-crested Cardinal N N N N N N N N
Yellow-billed Cardinal               N
CARDINALIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Northern Cardinal N N N N N N N N
ICTERIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Western Meadowlark   N            
FRINGILLIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
House Finch N N N N N N N N
Yellow-fronted Canary     N         N
'O'u   X X X X   X X
Lanai Hookbill         X      
Palila               R
Lesser Koa-Finch               X
Greater Koa-Finch               X
Kona Grosbeak               X
Maui Parrotbill             R  
Hawaii 'Amakihi       R R   R R
Oahu 'Amakihi     R          
Kauai 'Amakihi   R            
Greater 'Amakihi               X
Lesser 'Akialoa               X
Greater 'Akialoa   X X   X      
Nukupuu   X X       X  
'Akiapola'au               R
'Anianiau   R            
'Akikiki   R            
Hawaii Creeper               R
O'ahu 'Alauahio     X          
Kakawahie       X        
Maui 'Alauahio             R  
'Akeke'e   R            
'Akepa     x       x r
'Ula-'ai-hawane               X
'I'iwi M R R x x   R R
Hawai'i Mamo               X
Black Mamo       X        
'Akohekohe       x     R  
'Apapane M R R R R   R R
Po'o-uli             X  
PASSERIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
House Sparrow N N N N N N N N
ESTRILIDAE
COMMON NAME Ni'ihau Kaua'i O'ahu Moloka'i Lana'i Kaho'olawe Maui Hawai'i
Red-cheeked Cordonbleu               N
Lavender Waxbill     N         N
Orange-cheeked Waxbill     N       N  
Black-rumped Waxbill               N
Common Waxbill   n N n     n n
Red Avadavat n N N       n N
African Silverbill N N N N N N N N
Nutmeg Mannikin N N N N N N N N
Chestnut Munia   N N   n   N  
Java Sparrow   N N N n   N N
 
TOTAL SPECIES 70 181 212 122 74 44 163 190

Citation: Pyle, R.L., and P. Pyle. 2009. The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands: Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status. B.P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI, U.S.A. Version 1 (31 December 2009) http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/birds/rlp-monograph

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