The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands:
Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status

Robert L. Pyle and Peter Pyle

Hypothetical List

The following 44 bird species are mentioned in the literature or other sources as occurring naturally in the Hawaiian Islands but for which the evidence is not sufficient for placement on the Primary Checklist (see Introduction for more information on acceptance criteria to the Primary Checklist). See also the Non-established List for non-native species reported in the wild that have not established viable breeding populations. Species on the hypothetical list fall into three categories and receive the following codes for the Hawaiian Islands and for each of the primary island groups (Northwestern and Southeastern Hawaiian Islands):

U - One or more records that could be valid but documentation on identification is insufficient for acceptance

N - One or more confirmed records exist that could be valid but assistance by humans in the occurrence is probable and cannot be excluded

E - One or more erroneous reports exist, based on re-identification of records or of historical reports that are known or undoubtedly based on error

Click on pdf for detailed species account, and on photos for documentary images in the Hawaii Rare Bird Photograph (HRBP) Collection, if available.

Fulvous Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor N   N pdf photos
White-winged Scoter Melanitta fusca E   E pdf  
Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans E E   pdf  
Antarctic Giant-Petrel Macronectes gigantea U U   pdf  
Solander Petrel Pterodroma solandri U   U pdf  
Phoenix Petrel Pterodroma alba U   U pdf  
Defilippe Petrel Pterodroma defilippiana E   E pdf  
Little Shearwater Puffinus assimilis E E   pdf  
Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma furcata U   U pdf  
Blue-footed Booby Sula nebouxii U U U pdf  
Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis E   E pdf  
Intermediate Egret Mesophoyx intermedia E E   pdf  
Pacific Reef-Heron Egretta sacra U   U pdf  
Little Egret Egretta garzetta U   U pdf photos
Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis U   U pdf  
Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis E E   pdf  
American Kestrel Falco sparverius U   U pdf  
Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo U U   pdf  
American Coot Fulica americana U   U pdf photos
Snowy Plover Charadrius alexandrinus U   U pdf  
Wilson Plover Charadrius wilsonia U U   pdf  
Piping Plover Charadrius melodus U   U pdf  
Rock Sandpiper Calidris ptilocnemis E   E pdf  
Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea E E   pdf  
Silver Gull Chroicocephalus novaehollindae U U   pdf  
Thayer Gull Larus thayeri N E N pdf  
Bridled Tern Onychoprion anaethetus E   E pdf photos
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida U   U pdf  
Black-naped Tern Sterna sumatrana E   E pdf  
Royal Tern Thallasseus maximus U   U pdf photos
Japanese Murrelet Synthliboramphus wumizusume U U   pdf  
Cassin Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus N   N pdf photos
Tufted Puffin Fratercula cirrhata N N   pdf photos
Kuhl Lorikeet Vini kuhlii E   E pdf photos
Gray-cheeked Parakeet Brotogeris pyrrhopterus E   E pdf  
Long-tailed Cuckoo Eudynamys taitensis E   E pdf  
Tahiti Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus caffer E   E pdf  
Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis U   U pdf  
White-throated Laughingthrush Garrulax albogularis E   E pdf  
Cardinal Myzomela Myzomela cardinalis E   E pdf  
European Starling Sturnus vulgaris N   N pdf photos
Golden-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia atricapilla E   E pdf  
Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus N   N pdf photos
Hawaiian Honeycreeper Sassius simplex E   E pdf  

Version 1 completed Dec 2009 and will not be updated for content until Version 2 is posted (typos and bad links may be fixed). Plans are to complete Version 2 sometime in 2011-2013, with further updated versions to be completed every 2-4 years thereafter. Comments, errors, typos, bad links, updated information, any other suggestions: Please contact Peter Pyle at

Citation: Pyle, R.L., and P. Pyle. 2009. The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands: Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status. B.P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI, U.S.A. Version 1 (31 December 2009)

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