The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands:
Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status
Version 2 - 1 January 2017

 Robert L. Pyle and Peter Pyle


Hypothetical List

The following 50 bird species are mentioned in the literature or other sources as occurring naturally or having established populations in the Hawaiian Islands but for which the evidence is not sufficient for placement on the Primary Checklist (see Introduction for more information on acceptance criteria to the Primary Checklist). See also the Non-established List for non-native species reported in the wild that have not established viable breeding populations. Species on the hypothetical list fall into three categories and receive the following codes for the Hawaiian Islands and for each of the primary island groups (Northwestern and Southeastern Hawaiian Islands):

U - One or more records occur that could be valid but documentation on identification is insufficient for acceptance

N - One or more confirmed records exist that could be valid but assistance by humans in the occurrence is probable and cannot be excluded, or populations once considered established but since considered never established

E - One or more erroneous reports exist, based on re-identification of records or of historical reports that are known or undoubtedly based on error

Click on pdf for detailed species account, and on photos for documentary images in the Hawaii Rare Bird Photograph (HRBP) Collection, if available.

Fulvous Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor N   N pdf photos
White-winged Scoter Melanitta fusca E   E pdf  
Barrow's Goldeneye Bucephala islandica U   U pdf  
Western/Clark's Grebe Aechmophorus occidentalis/clarkii U   U pdf photos
Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans E E   pdf  
Antarctic Giant-Petrel Macronectes gigantea U U   pdf  
Providence Petrel Pterodroma solandri U   U pdf  
Phoenix Petrel Pterodroma alba U   U pdf  
Galapagos Petrel Pterodroma phaeopygia U   U pdf  
De Filippi's Petrel Pterodroma defilippiana E   E pdf  
Pycroft's Petrel Pterodroma pycrofti U U U pdf  
Little Shearwater Puffinus assimilis E E   pdf  
Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma furcata U   U pdf  
Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma tethys U   U pdf  
Blue-footed Booby Sula nebouxii U U U pdf  
Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis E   E pdf  
Little Egret Egretta garzetta U   U pdf photos
Pacific Reef-Heron Egretta sacra U   U pdf  
Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis U   U pdf  
Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis E E   pdf  
American Coot Fulica americana U   U pdf photos
Snowy Plover Charadrius alexandrinus U   U pdf  
Wilson's Plover Charadrius wilsonia U U   pdf  
Piping Plover Charadrius melodus U   U pdf  
Black Turnstone Arenaria melanocephala E   U pdf photos
Rock Sandpiper Calidris ptilocnemis E   E pdf  
Japanese Murrelet Synthliboramphus wumizusume U U   pdf  
Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus N   N pdf photos
Tufted Puffin Fratercula cirrhata N N   pdf photos
Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea E E   pdf  
Silver Gull Chroicocephalus novaehollindae U U   pdf  
Thayer's Gull Larus thayeri N E N pdf  
Black-naped Tern Sterna sumatrana E   E pdf  
Royal Tern Thallasseus maximus U   U pdf  
Pacific Long-tailed Cuckoo Eudynamys taitensis E   E pdf  
American Kestrel Falco sparverius U   U pdf  
Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo U U   pdf  
Gray-cheeked Parakeet Brotogeris pyrrhoptera E   E pdf  
Kuhl's Lorikeet Vini kuhlii E   E pdf photos
Cardinal Myzomela Myzomela cardinalis E   E pdf  
Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis U   U pdf  
Buffy Laughingthrush Ianthocincla berthemyi U   U pdf  
White-throated Laughingthrush Ianthocincla albogularis E   E pdf  
Tahiti Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus caffer E   E pdf  
European Starling Sturnus vulgaris N   N pdf photos
Golden-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia atricapilla E   E pdf  
Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus N   N pdf photos
Hawaiian Honeycreeper Sassius simplex E   E pdf  
Red-cheeked Cordonbleu Uraeginthus bengalus N   N pdf photos
Black-rumped Waxbill Estrilda troglodytes N   N pdf photos

Version 2 completed Jan 2017 and will not be updated for content until future versions are posted (typos and bad links will be fixed). Comments, errors, typos, bad links, updated information, any other suggestions: Please contact Peter Pyle at

Citation: Pyle, R.L., and P. Pyle. 2017. The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands: Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status. B.P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI, U.S.A. Version 2 (1 January 2017)

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