The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands:
Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status
Version 2 - 1 January 2017

 Robert L. Pyle and Peter Pyle


Non-Established Species List

The following list includes species reported to have been released in the Hawaiian Islands or those that have been identified in the field (away from semi-captive situations such as hotel grounds and ponds), but for which viable populations were never established in the wild. Identification of all taxa have not necessarily been substantiated by the authors and this list is undoubtedly incomplete. See species accounts for information on non-established populations or sightings of non-native species on islands apart from other established populations in Hawaii. Taxonomy and order follow those of the AOU (2015) for family order, and the AOU and Clements et al. (2016) for species order within families, as parsimoniously as possible. Frequent references are made to the Hawaii Board of Agriculture and Forestry (HBAF including Hawaii Fish and Game Commission), the Hawaii Department of Fish and Wildlife (DOFAW) and predecessors, and the Hui Manu Society. Square brackets [] indicate reported species in which identification was later corrected or is highly questionable.


Ostrich (Struthio camelas). Singles reported on Moloka'i Ranch late 1970s-early 1980s and at Ulupalakua, Maui, 2002-2004. Possibly imported for release in 1853 (Caum 1933, E 35:65).


Chilean Tinamou (Nothoprocta perdicaria). 43 individuals of subspecies N.p. perdicaria reportedly released at Pu'uanahulu, Hawai'i I 18 Sep 1966 and 26 of N.p. sanborni reportedly released on Kaua'i at about the same time (Swedberg 1967a, Walker 1967, Bump and Bohl 1970).

ANATIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

White-faced Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna viduata). Pair reported escaped from hotel in Wailua, Kaua'i and bred, 23 May 1996; adults and ducklings captured by HBAF personnel. Up to six more reported from same area Aug 2005, Jan 2007, and Mar 2011. One reported from Diamond Head Crater in Jan 2012.

Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis). One reported Kapa'a, Kaua'i, 1 Apr 1988; probable escape from nearby park, where 9 observed 27 Jan 1989. Six reported from Wailua hotel grounds 20 Jan 1993.

Fulvous Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna bicolor). See account under Hypothetical List.

Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides). Escapes reported from Kanaha Pond, Maui, 8 Oct 1992 (2 birds) and Feb 2010-Feb 2016 (1). Others or hybrids may have been there through the late 2000s. One escape in Waiakea Pond, Hawai'i I, Mar 2010 through 2016.

Graylag Goose (Anser anser). Escapes of single wild phenotypes reported at aquafarm near Kahuku, O'ahu, 1984-1987; Hilo, Hawai'i I, 11 Jan-16 Feb 1986; Kanaha Pond, Maui, 6 Dec 2005; lake Ho'omaluhia, O'ahu May 2009-Aug 2012; Kealia Pond, Maui Jul 2012-Feb 2014, and Wai'akea Pond, Hawai'i I, Jun 2012-Jan 2016. Many additional reports of up to 7 domestic varieties or hybrids escaped throughout all Southeastern Islands.

Canada Goose (Branta canadensis ). See Species Account

Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus). Pair of escapes reported Kawaiele Sanctuary, Kaua'i captured and returned to owner 6-7 Feb 1995. Were laying eggs when captured.

Mute Swan (Cygnus olor). Pair reportedly imported for introduction in 1853 (Locey 1937, Swedberg 1967a). A few liberated Wailua River, Hawai'i I, ~1929, considered established for short period (Caum 1933, Munro 1944, Bryan 1958; E 2:5) but last recorded 1937 (Locey 1937). One escape Hanalei NWR, Kaua'i 13 Feb-21 Mar 2001. Others present in hotel-grounds ponds on Kaua'i and Maui 2008-2016.

Black Swan (Cygnus atratus). Pair possibly imported for introduction in 1853 (Locey 1937; may have mistakenly referred to Mute Swans; Swedberg 1967a). Escapes reported Aquafarm near Kahuku, O'ahu 15 Mar 1987-4 Mar 1989 (1-2); Peolua Bay, Maui 29 Apr 1996 (1); Wailua, Kaua'i 26 Feb 1998 (1); Poipu, Kaua'i 23-29 Jul 2001 (2); Kaneohe Bay, O'ahu 5-7 Jan 2004 (1) and Dec 2008-Nov 2014 (3); and the Ko'olina Gilf Course, O'ahu Jun 2015 through 2016 (4). Others present in hotel-grounds ponds on Kaua'i, O'ahu, Maui, and Hawai'i 2004-2016.

Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea). Up to six reported Kaua'i Lagoons, Lihue, 1997-2000, two there in Mar 2007 (HRBP 5828), and two near Kilauea, Kaua'i in 2000-2001. One present on Kaua'i Marriot hotel grounds Feb-Dec 2012.

Common Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna). Pair of escapes reported at aquafarm near Kahuku, O'ahu 4 Sep 1987-9 Nov 1990. Two reported Wailua River, Hilo, Hawai'i 14 Dec 2009.

Radjah Shelduck (Tadorna radjah). Semi-wild flock (up to 20) reported Kona Village Resort, Hawai'i I, 1985-2009, occasionally wandering to nearby hotel grounds. One at Mauna Lani Resort, Hawai'i I, 16 Feb 2012.

Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata). Singles and flocks reported in wild on Kaua'i, O'ahu, Moloka'i, Maui, and Hawai'i I 1970s- mid 2010s. DOFAW Waterbird Surveys recorded high count of 310 in 2001 (including 116 on Kaua'i and 45 on Hawai'i). Neighborhood flock of up to 75 along Ala Wai Canal, Kailua, O'ahu recorded irregularly on Honolulu Christmas Count, and islandwide high count of 150 recorded in 2004. Flock at Waiakea Pond, Hawai'i I 1990s-mid 2010s reached high count of 60 on 15 Jan 2016. Has been reported breeding Hanalei NWR, Kaua'i; Waiakea Pond, Hawai'i I, and in Kailua, O'ahu. One collected Enchanted Lakes, O'ahu Sep 1995 (BPBM 183812). Most birds semi-domesticated and fed by humans. Hybrids with Mallards also reported.

Wood Duck (Aix sponsa). Several released reported in memorial park in Kaneohe, O'ahu ~1970, reportedly did not survive. Possibly nesting on O'ahu in late 1970s (E 45:71). One reported Heeia Marsh Kaneohe 15 Oct 1987 (E 48:22); pair reported from Waimanalo 8 Nov 1988; and on DOFAW Waterbird Surveys 12 reported in Waimea Valley 1 Jan 1989, two at PHNWR 21 Jan 2004, and one at Hawaii Prince Golf Course 21 Jan 2004. Some released near Kona, Hawai'i I late 1970s apparently breeding, resulted in report of one on pond in Hilo 12-20 Aug 1980 (E 45:71). One reported on Kaua'i 27 Dec 1986-7 Jan 1987.

Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata). Nine reported introduced to Hawai'i I Sep 1933 (HBAF unpublished list). Reported introduced O'ahu <1942 (E 31:26, 35:62). Two on hotel grounds at Ka'anapali Maui 31 Mar 1994.

Maned Duck (Chenonetta jubata). A few reportedly imported and liberated in Honolulu 1922, did not survive (Caum 1933).

Chiloe Wigeon (Anas sibilatrix). One reported Kanaha and Kealia ponds, Maui, 3 Mar 1998-12 Mar 1999 likely escaped from collection in Ka'anapali. One reported Enchanted Lake, O'ahu, 30 Nov 1996.

Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors). See Species Account

Rosy-billed Pochard (Netta peposaca). Pair reported in Kahuku area, O'ahu, 3 Aug 1987-7 May 1988 (when male collected or found dead; BPBM 177070; HRBP 5672-5673 of specimen); female reported through 10 Dec 2005.


Gray-headed Chachalaca (Ortalis cineieiceps). As recommended by Henshaw (1911), two pairs from Panama reportedly released Hawai'i I 1928 (possibly 1927 and 1928) apparently persisted until at least 1933 but not known to breed (HFA 25:40-41, 105; Caum 1933; Swedberg 1967a).

Crested Guan (Penelope purpurascens). As recommended by Henshaw (1911), three pairs from Panama reportedly released Hawai'i I 1928 (HFA 25:40-41, 105; Caum 1933, under "P. cristata"); reported to persist for some years but not known to breed.

Great Curassow (Crax rubra). As recommended by Henshaw (1911), two pairs from Panama reportedly released Hawai'i I 1928 (HFA 25:40-41, 105; Caum 1933, under "C. globicigera"), reported to persist for some years but not known to breed. 


Helmeted Guineafowl (Numida melagris). Poorly documented releases reported on private land on Kaua'i in 1874, Moloka'i in 1908, and Lana'i in 1914 (Caum 1933, Munro 1944, Swedberg 1967a, Berger 1981), failed to survive. Reported encountered on O'ahu in Waianae Range occasionally <1901 (PoP 14[7]:16). From 1929-1939 >23,000 of subspecies N.m. galeata documented released by HBAF from Mokapu Gamefarm facility (Northwood 1940, Swedberg 1967a; HBAF reports for years ending 1938 and 1939), probably more through 1941 that were not documented (HFA reports for 1922-1939, Schwartz and Scwartz 1949). Documented releases included 8408 on Kaua'i (1929-1939), 2256 on O'ahu (1930-1939), 3350 on Moloka'i (1930-1939), 7084 on Lana'i (1938-1939), 1427 on Maui (1929-1939), and 666 on Hawai'i I (1930-1939). Possibly established for short time (Walker 1967, Berger 1981, AOU 1998) but "not doing well" (Munro 1944) and declining through 1940s (Schwartz and Schwartz 1949). Included in Hawaii Checklist by Pyle (1977) but removed by R. Pyle (1979). Small flocks of feral individuals observed North Shore of O'ahu 1976-1977 and 1991-1998); Mauna Loa Strip Road, Hawai'i (Feb 2005); Wiamanalo O'ahu 2006-2015; Olinda Maui Feb 2014; and Waiakea Pond, Hawai'i I in Dec 2016; many other singles and semi-domesticated birds reported.

ODONTOPHORIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Mountain Quail (Oreortyx pictus). Reported abundant on Moloka'i, Lana'i, Maui, and Hawai'i I in or before 1901 (Swedberg 1967a; PoP 14[7]:16, 20[4]:18), likely due to confusion with California Quail. Reported releases of subspecies O.p. palmeri by HBAF: 24 at Pu'u Ka Pele, Kaua'i Oct-Dec 1929, 16 near Waianae, O'ahu, Oct-Dec 1929, 12 near Waipahu, O'ahu Oct-Dec 1931, and 4 and unknown number on Hawai'i I in 1929 and1932, respectively (Caum 1933, Swedberg 1967a; HFA reports for 1929-1932). 58 released by HBAF at Pu'uanahulu, Hawai'i I, 1960 (Swedberg 1967a, Walker 1967) resulted in possible breeding (Lewin 1971); specimen from Pu'uanahulu collected 1966 in University of Alberta Museum (UAMZ B3543).

Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). Reported plentiful on several islands by Palmer (in Rotshchild 1900) and 11 specimens collected by him at Keawewai Springs, Hawai'i I, in 1892 (AMNH 472584-94) identified as subspecies C.v. virginianus. This subspecies reported also possibly introduced in 1906 (Walker 1967, Berger 1981), to Kaua'i and Hawai'i I in ~1928 (Caum 1933, Locey 1937), and to Hawai'i I in 1935 (155 released). Munro (1944) and AOU (1957) considered it becoming established or established on Hawai'i I. Releases by HBAF (Swedberg 1967a, Lewin 1971) of subspecies virginianus and individuals from Florida (possibly including floridanus) reported to Maui (30, 14 Nov 1955), Hawai'i I (134, 27 Feb 1956-3 Oct 1963), and O'ahu (48, 22 Jan 1962); and of Endangered subspecies ridgwayi to Hawai'i I (20 to the Pu'u Wa'a Wa'a Ranch in 1960). Small numbers released for field trials on Lana'i in 1982-1984 observed for 1-2 months after release. Two reported from Polo Grounds in Princeville, Kaua'i Apr 1999 and occasional other observations in 1990s on this island (Denny 1999); one possible sighting near Huleia 29 Mar 2007 and individuals photographed at Halenanaha Res. near Lihue 12 Sep 2012 (HRBP 6786) and on slopes east of Lihue 14 Jun 2016 (HRBP 6140-6141) suggests that they persisted in small numbers or were being released by hunters through the mid-2010s.

Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata). Fourteen of subspecies C.s. castanogastris reportedly released Pu'u Wa'a Wa'a Ranch, Hawai'i I, 1961 (Swedberg 1967a, Lewin 1971).

Elegant Quail (Callipepla douglasii). 113 of subspecies C.d. bensoni reportedly released Pu'u Wa'a Wa'a Ranch, Hawai'i I, 1960-1964 (Swedberg 1967a, Lewin 1971).

Montezuma Quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae). Eight of subspecies C.m. mearnsi reportedly released Pu'u Wa'a Wa'a Ranch 1961 (Swedberg 1967a, Lewin 1971).

PHASIANIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Crested Partridge (Rollulus rouloul). A few individuals from Singapore reportedly released O'ahu in 1924 (Caum 1933, Locey 1937).

See-see Partridge (Ammoperdix grisgeogularis). 73 reported released by HBAF Pu'uanahulu, Hawai'i I, 1957-1966 (Swedberg 1967a, Lewin 1971).

Barbary Partridge (Alectoris barbara). Total of 858 of nominate A.b. barbara reported released by HBAF (Swedberg 1967a, Bump and Bohl 1970, Lewin 1971), on Hawai'i I (349, 1958-Nov 1959), Maui (235, Aug 1958-Oct 1961), Lana'i (171, Sep 1959-Jul 1960), and Moloka'i (103, Nov 1959-Jul 1960). Two specimens from Pu'uanahulu collected 1966-1967 in University of Alberta Museum (UAMZ B3553-4). Small population reported persisting through 1960s near release sites on Moloka'i (Bump and Bohl 1970) and Hawai'i I at Pu'anahulu and in Waimea/Kohala Mts (Lewin 1971). Considered not established by Berger (1972), established by Pyle (1977-1979), and possibly established by Berger (1981); removed from Hawaii Checklist by Pyle (1983).

Heuglin's Francolin (Pternistis icterorhynchus). Nine reported released by HBAF in 1961 at Pu'uanahulu, Hawai'i I (Swedberg 1967a, Lewin 1971).

Red-billed Francolin (Pternistis adspersus). Four reported released by HBAF affiliate in 1963 at Pu'uanahulu, Hawai'i I, observed for about a year (Swedberg 1967a, Lewin 1971). Some probably also released around the same time at Ainahou Ranch (now in Volcano NP). Specimens collected on Ainahou Ranch 29 Sep 1970 (USNM 565261, HRBP 5603 of specimen) and 19 Jan 1978 (USNM 575348) and reported regularly there Oct 1988-Nov 1995 (e.g., HRBP 966-968). Other, less-substantiated reports (possibly of Chukars), are from Waimea 3 Aug 1993 (4 birds), near Ainahou Ranch in 2004 (1-2 birds), and along Saddle Road 29 Aug 2004 (2 birds). Considered established by HAS (1975-2002) and may persist in small numbers on Hawai'i I.

Clapperton's Francolin (Pternistis clappertoni). Thirteen reported released by HBAF to unknown locality on Maui 18 Aug 1958 and 10 at Pu'uanahulu, Hawaii'i I 13 Mar 1962 (Swedberg 1967a, Lewin 1971).

Yellow-necked Francolin (Pternistis leucoscepus). Three reported released by HBAF on Maui 18 Aug 1958 and 27 to Pu'uanahulu, Hawaii'i I 1959-Oct 1961 (Swedberg 1967a, Lewin 1971); specimen from Pu'uanahulu collected 1967 in University of Alberta Museum (UAMZ B3555). Limited reproductive success reported on Hawai'i I. Considered too tame for good sport (Lewin 1971). Illustrated by Berger (1977).

Chinese Francolin (Francolinus pintadeanus). Ten reported released by HBAF Pu'unahulu, Hawai'i I, 21 Jul 1961 and 5 more released there 22 Mar 1962 (Swedberg 1967a, Lewin 1971).

[Himalayan Snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayensis). Reported introduced to Hawaii in 1959 by Long (1981), apparently in error.]

Gray Partridge (Perdix perdix). Numerous introductions of nominate subspecies reported by HBAF and private individuals to Hawaii prior to 1933 (Caum 1933, Locey 1937, Swedberg 1967a, Walker 1967) included poorly documented release prior to 1895, unknown numbers to Kaua'i and Ni'ihau in 1910 and 1915, at least 14 to Hawai'i I in 1923 (Locey 1937), "large numbers" to Maui and Hawai'i I in 1929, 200 each to Kaua'i (including Pu'u Ka Pele) and O'ahu (including Laie Plain and Mokuleia) in Oct 1929-Jan 1930, and 353 and 458 to scattered localities on O'ahu Oct-Dec 1931 and 1933, respectively. Probably many more released with little documentation (HFA reports 1925-1933).

Blue-breasted Quail (Synoicus chinensis). Numerous releases by HBAF and private individuals reported around 1910 to Kaua'i, O'ahu, Moloka'i, Maui, and Hawai'i I (Caum 1933, under Excalfactoria chinensis). Reportedly still persisting on Kaua'i through 1933 and considered established there by Bryan (1958); Munro (1944) considered it not established on Kaua'i but possibly on O'ahu. Eight reported released by HBAF at Puu' Wa'a Wa'a Ranch in 1961 (Swedberg 1967a, Lewin 1971). Four specimens of "Coturnix coturnix" from Pu'uanahulu collected 1966-1967 in University of Alberta Museum (UAMZ B3539-42) may refer to this species.

Stubble Quail (Coturnix pectoralis). Reportedly introduced to Maui Nui in 1922 (Munro 1944, Bryan 1958, Walker 1967) and possibly hybridized with Japanese Quail on Lana'i (Munro 1944). Reported common on Ni'ihau in 1947 (Fisher 1951) but possibly mistaken Japanese Quails.

Chinese Bamboo-Partridge (Bambusicola fythcii). Twenty reported released by HBAF to Pu'u Wa'a Wa'a Ranch, Hawai'i I, 1959-1965 and 169 released to unknown localities on Maui Feb-Jun 1959 (Swedberg 1967a, Bump and Bohl 1970, Lewin 1971). Hunted in 1966-1968 on Maui but take limited (Bump and Bohl 1970). Report of bird, possibly this species, in hunter bag near Kula Jun-Jul 1988. Included in Hawaii Checklist by Pyle (1977) but removed by R. Pyle (1979); considered established on Maui by Berger (1972, 1981) and illustrated by Berger (1977).

Gray Junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii). Fourteen reported released by HBAF at Puu' Wa'a Wa'a  Ranch in 1962 (Swedberg 1967a, Lewin 1971). May have interbred with Gallus gallus taxa (see Red Junglefowl).

Reeves Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii). Mentioned by Locey (1937) but no details. Total of 1502 reported released by HBAF in 1958-1961 (Swedberg 1967a, Lewin 1971) to Moloka'i (118, Nov 1957-Sep 1961), Kaua'i (488, Aug 1958-Dec 1961), Maui (232, Sep 1958-Oct 1961), Hawai'i I (348, Oct 1958-Nov 1961), O'ahu (217, Jan 1959-Nov 1961), and Lana'i (99, Oct 1961). Four first-cycle birds reported E of Koke'e State Park 22 Jul 1960 (Richardson and Bowles 1964) suggests possibility of breeding, and reports of localized breeding on Moloka'i <1964 (Pekelo 1964) but introduction considered a complete failure on Hawai'i I (Lewin 1971). Reported to occur locally on four islands in 1966 (E 27:29) and three islands in 1966-1968 (Bump and Bohl 1970).

Copper Pheasant (Syrmaticus soemmerringii). Unknown numbers reportedly released by HBAF to Kaua'i, O'ahu, and Maui in 1907-1914, may have interbred with Ring-necked Pheasants (Caum 1933; Munro 1927, 1940; Locey 1937; Bryan 1958). Reports of Ring-necked Pheasants with copper-tinged heads on Saddle Road, Hawai'i I, Oct 2003 may have involved

Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus). Unknown numbers reportedly brought in and released near Honolulu by W. Hillebrand in 1866 (Meier 2005; see Common Myna) and on Kaua'i in 1870 (Caum 1933), possibly to Moloka'i as well (Henshaw 1900b). Additional reported releases to O'ahu in 1932 by HBAF poorly documented (Caum 1933, Swedberg 1967a, Walker 1967). Request to release 10 pairs in Koke'e State Park, Kaua'i, in 1974 disapproved by HBAF (E 35:54). At Waikamoi Prserve, Maui, a male was first observed (probably released by a local breeder) in 1996, a male was observed regularly in 2002-2009, and up to two adults and two females with chicks were observed in 2011-2012 (Hammond 2012). By 2005-2008 Golden Pheasants were also detected nearby at Manawainui in Haleakala NP (beginning in 2005) and Hanawi Natural Area Reserve (2008), encompassing a total area of 12 km (Hammond 2012) but in 2013-2016 observations were limited to Waikamoi (up to 3 birds on 28 Feb 2016).

Lady Amherst Pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae). 49 released by HBAF on O'ahu in 1931 (Swedberg 1967a; possibly 1932, Caum 1933) to Laie (24) and Koko Head (25).

Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Unknown numbers reportedly brought in and released near Honolulu by W. Hillebrand in 1866 (Meier 2005; see Common Myna) and on Kaua'i in 1870 (Caum 1933, under "Gennaeus nycthemerus"). Additional reported releases to O'ahu in 1932-1933 by HBAF poorly documented (Caum 1933, Locey 1937, Swedberg 1967a, Walker 1967) and possibly also to Kaua'i at this time; considered possibly established on O'ahu and Kaua'i by Bryan (1958). Six (two pairs and two first-cycle birds) reported in hills behind Kaneohe in Dec 1995.

Sharp-tailed Grouse  (Tympanuchus phasianellus). About 30 individuals of subspecies T.p. columbianus reportedly released on Hawai'i I in 1932 (Caum 1933, Swedberg 1967a). Specimen at BPBM (6100), received 19 Jan 1933, identified as "prairie-chicken", reported to have died enroute to Hilo from Canada. No further reports. Additional reports of Greater Prairie Chicken (below) may actually have been of this species.

Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido). Not definitely liberated in Hawaii due to confusion of names and identification with Sharp-tailed Grouse (see above). Possibly released on Kaua'i and O'ahu (12 birds) <1895 (Caum 1933, as "T. americanus"; PoP 14[7]:17 and "prairie chickens"). See also Lesser Prairie-Chicken (below).

Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympannuchus pallidicinctus). Unknown number and species of Tympannuchus reportedly released on Ni'ihau in 1934; eight unidentified prairie-chickens observed there by Fisher (1951) in 1947, reported as either this species or Greater Prairie-Chicken (above), perhaps the former (Schwartz and Schwartz 1949), but species considered unverified here. Could still occur on Ni'ihau (Pratt et al. 1987).


American Flamingo (Pheonicopterus ruber). Three reportedly brought from Cuba released on Kaua'i 1929, survived about one year (Caum 1933, Swedberg 1967a). Photo (PoP 49[12]:29) shows four birds, may or may not be related.

PHALACROCORACIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). Single "Chinese Fishing Cormorant" released Makaweli, Kaua'i 1896 (Munro 1944). Some also reportedly released on Lana'i during the late 1890s (Caum 1933, Swedberg 1867a, Berger 1981) but this may refer to above event.

ACCIPITRIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Savannah Hawk (Buteogallus meridionalis). One reported escaped from zoo near Diamond Head, O'ahu, Dec 1973 (E 34:89, 91).

RALLIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio). Subspecies P.p. melanotus reportedly well-established on O'ahu <1900 (Rothschild 1900, Henshaw 1902a); continued to be considered "well-established" here by Caum (1933), not much in evidence by Munro (1944), and established by Bryan (1958) but uncommon. Possibly could be considered established for >15 years but data are lacking. Four reportedly captured illegally on Maui and returned to O'ahu in 1929 (HFA 27:55). Unknown numbers of subspecies poliocephalus reportedly introduced to Hawai'i I via San Francisco in 1928 (Caum 1933). One (subspecies unknown) reportedly escaped from captivity in Kaneohe Oct 1978 and disappeared up a stream valley.

GRUIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Gray Crowned-Crane (Balearica regulorum). One reported free on Moloka'i Ranch in 1988.

Demoiselle Crane (Anthropoides virgo). One observed free on a hotel pond in Poipu, Kaua'i, 23 Jul 2001. One photographed at a nearby golf course 6 Jan 2007 (HRBP 5966) may have been the same individual.


Painted Buttonquail (Turnix varia). Unknown number reportedly released or escaped on Lana'i and Maui in 1922 (Caum 1933, Locey 1937, Swedberg 1967a); considered possibly established by Bryan (1958).

LARIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Silver Gull (Chroicocephalus novaehollindae). See Hypothetical Species Account

Western Gull (Larus occidentalis). See Species Account

COLUMBIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Speckled Pigeon (Columba guinea). Five reported introduced to Hawai'i I by HBAF in Sep 1930 as "African Triangular Spotted Dove" (HBAF unpublished list, Locey 1937).

[Island Collared-Dove (Streptopelia bitorquata). Possibly released by HBAF in 1924 on O'ahu from Singapore (Caum 1933, under "Unidentified Javanese Dove", may also refer to variety of Eurasian Collared-Dove, below; Swedberg 1967a).]

Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto). Unknown numbers released by private individuals to Kaua'i in 1920 (Caum 1933). At least 464 individuals released by HBAF on O'ahu 1924-1929, 38 released on Hawai'i I Jul-Sep 1928, four released on Kaua'i Oct-Dec 1929, and nine released on Maui Oct-Dec 1929 (Thrum 1928, Caum 1933, Swedberg 1967a; HFA reports 1927-1931); reported breeding in small numbers on Kaua'i and O'ahu through 1933 and considered possibly established by Munro (1944) and Bryan (1958). Additional 20 released Pu'u Wa'a Wa'a Ranch 1961-1966 (Swedberg 1967a). See also Island Collared-Dove (above).

African Collared-Dove (Streptopelia roseogrisa). Known Ringed Turtle-Dovwe and/or as "S. risoria" until 2006 (AOU 2006). Eleven reportedly released by HBAF at Pu'u Wa'a Wa'a Ranch, Hawai'i I, in 1961 (Lewin 1971; E 29:27). One reported in Kahala, O'ahu, 30 Aug 1974 (E 35:43), two reported near Honolulu Zoo 15 or 17 Sep 1987, three Reported Honolulu Christmas Count 27 Dec 1987 (E 48:19), one reported Kapioloani Park O'ahu 29 Oct 1989, one reported Kealakekua Bay' Hawai'i I 18 Jun 2001, and one photogrpahed in Waihe'e Maui 13 Jan 2010.

Asian Emerald Dove (Chalcophaps indica). A few from India reportedly released on O'ahu in 1924 (Caum 1933).

Common Bronzewing (Phaps chalcoptera). A few reportedly released on O'ahu in 1922 (Caum 1933).

Crested Pigeon (Ocyphaps lophotes). A few reportedly introduced to O'ahu, Moloka'i and Lana'i in 1922, observed on Moloka'i up to 4-5 years later (Caum). Eight reportedly released by HBAF at Pu'u Wa'a Wa'a Ranch, Hawai'i I, in 1964 were observed up to 8 km from release site through Jan 1967 (Lewin 1971) and at release site 28 Dec 1967 (E 28:107). Illustrated by Berger (1977).

Spinifex Pigeon (Geophaps plumifera). A few reportedly released on Maui and Lana'i in 1922 but evidently did not survive (Caum 1933, under "Lophophaps splumifera").

[Squatter Pigeon (Geophaps scripta). Possibly released on Maui and Lana'i in 1922 (Munro 1944) but shipment listed as G. smithii (Partridge Pigeon, below).]

Partridge Pigeon (Geophaps smithii). Unknown number reportedly released on Maui and Lana'i in 1922 (Caum 1933, Munro 1944). Listed on permits as "Squatter Pigeon" (above).

Wonga Pigeon (Leucosarcia melanoleuca). A few reportedly released on Lana'i and possibly Maui in ~1922 (Caum 1933). Disappeared quickly on Lana'i (Munro 1940).

Diamond Dove (Geopelia cuneata). Possibly brought to Lana'i from Maui in 1922 (Munro 1944). A few reportedly released by HBAF on O'ahu in 1928 and an unknown number possibly released to Hawai'i I in 1929 (Caum 1933).

Peaceful Dove (Geopelia placida). One reported possibly released on Kaua'i by a private individual in 1920 and unknown number from Australia reportedly brought in for release on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Lana'i in 1922 (Caum 1933). Reported sparingly established on O'ahu and doubtfully established on Moloka'i by Caum. Reported common on Lana'i in 1926 with last record there for 1929 (Munro 1944 as "G. striata tranquilla"), and eight other specimens identified as Peaceful Doves or "Geopelia sp." by Munro from O'ahu, Maui, Moloka'i, and Lana'i in 1936-1937 at BPBM (not mentioned by Munro 1944); all appear to refer to pure striata (PP examination). See Munro for summary of confusion regarding Geopelia doves introduced to Hawaii.

Bar-shouldered Dove (Geopelia humeralis). Reportedly brought to Kaua'i and O'ahu in 1920s and Maui in 1928 (Caum 1933) but Caum may have confused this species with Zebra Dove (Munro 1944). Releases by HBAF (Swedberg 1967a, HFA 26:220-222, 27:33) also reported in Oct-Dec 1929 for Kaua'i (12 birds; HFA 27:55), Maui (24 birds), and Moloka'i (29 birds). Munro (1944) suggested it may have become genetically swamped by Zebra Dove.

[Ruddy Ground-Dove (Columbina talpacoti). Listed by Munro (1944), Bryan (1958) and Walker (1967) as Oreopelia montana in reference to Ruddy Quail-Dove (below).]

[Blue Ground-Dove (Claravis pretosia). Listed by Munro (1944), Bryan (1958) and Walker (1967) as Leptotelia verreauxi in reference to White-tipped Dove, below.]

White-tipped Dove (Leptotelia verreauxi). Reported introduced in 1933 from San Francisco (Locey 1937, Swedberg 1967a). Report of possible White-tipped Dove from Honaunau, Hawai'i I, 29 May 1966 (E 27:22).

Ruddy Quail-Dove (Geotrygon montana). Reported introduced in 1933 from San Francisco (Locey 1937, Swedberg 1967a). One possibly observed Maui 1936 (Murno 1944).

Blue-headed Quail-Dove (Starnoenas cyanocephala). A few individuals reportedly imported for release by a private individual in 1928 but unknown if released (Caum 1933).

White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica). Forty from California released by HBAF at Pu'u Wa'a Wa'a Ranch, Hawai'i I, in 1961 and 1965 but did not spread (Lewin 1971; E 27:29, 28:107, 29:27).

Nicobar Pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica). A few reportedly imported to Maui County in 1922 and Kaua'i in 1928, and some still held by HBAF in 1928 (Caum 1933) but unknown if releases were made.

Luzon Bleeding-heart (Gallicolumba luzonica). A few individuals reportedly released by a private individual on Kaua'i in 1929 (Caum 1933). Walker (1967) and Berger (1981) mention year of introduction as 1922.  

FALCONIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

[Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus). Two large raptors tentatively identified as Gyrfalcons by Caum (1933) reportedly escaped from ship in Hilo, Hawai'i I, May 1929. One captured and killed, the other supposedly "at liberty" in the vicinity of Mt. Hualalai but this last report doubtful. Munro (1944) and Bryan (1958) question identification.]


Palm Cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus). One reported at Lyon Arboretum, upper Manoa Valley, O'ahu, with other cockatoos for some time in at least 1983 (e.g., E 44:103).

Galah (Eolophus roseiacapillus). Reported to escape occasionally from captivity by Caum (1933, under "Cacatua roseicapilla").

Tanimbar Corella (Cacatua goffiniana). Also known as Goffin's Cockatoo. Escape reported upper Manoa Valley from nearby theme park in spring 1987 (1) and up to 30 reported with other cockatoos at Lyon Arboretum, O'ahu, 1991-2012 (HRBP 5878), at least. Reported also on O'ahu at Haleiwa Aug 1987 (1, E 48:30), Makiki Apr 1988 (2 shot; specimens apparently not saved) and Mar 2000 (3), Kahuku (1, Aug 1996), Punalu'u (2003), Kaneohe (2003), and up to 7 above Kona (2015-2016; HRBP 6784) . Many other unidentified cockatoos reported from O'ahu and Hawai'i I perhaps most likely this species.

Yellow-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea). Two reported with other cockatoos at Lyon Arboretum in upper Manoa Valley, O'ahu, Jun 1982-Dec 1983 (e.g., E 44:103), probably having escaped from nearby theme park.

Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua galerita). Reported to escape occasionally from captivity by Caum (1933). Single escapes reported on O'ahu from Diamond Head (1980), Kaneohe (1987; E 48:30), Honouliuli Unit of PHNWR (Nov 1992), and Kahuku (Aug 1996) and on Maui from Pukalani (Feb 1987). 4-6 (possibly as many as 11) reported with other cockatoos at Lyon Arboretum in upper Manoa Valley in 1992-2005, having escaped from nearby theme park; 1-4 reported Honolulu Christmas Count 2002-2006; one repoted along Aiea Trail, O'ahu 5 Aug 2012. Has reportedly hybridized with Salmon-crested Cockatoo (cf. HRBP 5891-5893).

Salmon-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis). 1-3 escapes at Lyon Arboretum in upper Manoa Valley, O'ahu, 1972-1983 (E 33;82, 39:95, 42:100, 44:89, 44:103) and 2-8 again with other cockatoos in 1991-2016 (cf. HRBP 5892-5893), having escaped from nearby theme park. Reported Honolulu Christmas Count 1972 (1), 2002 (1), and 2003 (2). One or hybrid photographed Makiki Valley, O'ahu 15 Nov 2006 (HRBP 5894). Four collected Waikapu Valley, Maui, Dec 2002 (BPBM 184457-184460). Has reportedly hybridized with Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (cf. HRBP 5891-5893) and White Cockatoo.

White Cockatoo (Cacatua alba). One reported in Aina Haina, O'ahu, 1 Aug 1987, 1-2 at Lyon Arboreteum with other cockatoos in 1991-2015, and one in Kaimuki, O'ahu 7 Dec 2016 (HRBP 6785) . Has reportedly hybridized with Salmon-crested Cockatoo.

Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus). Single escapes reported nine times from widely scattered locations on O'ahu in 1979-2015. One reported on Kualapu'u Chistmas Count, Moloka'i, 18 Dec 2001 (E 62:120).

PSITTACIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus). Pair reported escaped from Honolulu Zoo in Kapiolani Park  26-28 Dec 1970 (E 31:76) and nine reported Kaneohe Apr 1976 (Berger 1981). One collected in unknown locality on O'ahu in 1977 (USNM 575715).

Orange-chinned Parakeet (Brotogeris jugularis). Escapes reported on several occasions in Honolulu by Caum (1933).

White-fronted Parrot (Amazona albifrons). Escapes reported Diamond Head, O'ahu, Dec 1984 (2 birds, E 45:84) and Jul 1985 (3 birds). Unidentified Amazona parrots also reported on Maui from Haiku (May 1992, pair investigating tree cavity) and Huelo (1995, small flock).

Red-lored Parrot (Amazona autunalis). Escapes reported O'ahu, around Diamond Head Apr 1980 (1) and Makiki Nov 1987 (1). 1-2 may have occurred with Red-crowned Parrot flock.

Blue-fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva). Escape reported with Red-crowned Parrot flock in Pearl City, O'ahu, 22 Jun 1988 (E 48:114). Another photographed Mililani, O'ahu, Jan-Feb 2004.

Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratix). Escapes reported on O'ahu, around Diamond Head 1969-1970 (Berger 1981), Aug 1980 (2+ birds), and Nov 1984 (1-2, E 45:76); downtown Honolulu May 1983 (3 birds); Waimanalo Apr 1988 (3) and Jul 1990 (1); flying over Nu'uanu Pali Jul 1990 (1), Pearl Harbor Sep 1999 (4); and Mililani Sep 2000 (2).

Slender-billed Parakeet (Enicognathus leptorhynchus). Escape reported from above Kona and (same bird?) over Aimakapa Pond, Hawai'i I, Apr 1988.

Burrowing Parrot (Cyanoliseus patagonius). Also known as Patagonian Conure. Possible escapes of subspecies bloxami from Kona Airport; banded birds first reported Apr (4) and Dec (8) 1990. Flock of up to 15 reported through 2015 (HRBP 5877), included some young and mosltly un-banded birds by 2015, indicating breeding. Flock roosts S of Kona Surf Hotel and reported S to Honaunau Bay, N to Hapuna Beach State Park, and inland to Pu'u Wa'a Wa'a.

Orange-fronted Parakeet (Eupsittula canicularis). Escapes (possibly just 1) reported at Diamond Head and in e. Honolulu, O'ahu, Jan 1984-Aug 1985 (e.g., E 45:84).

Nanday Parakeet (Aratinga nenday). Numerous reports of up to 6 in vicinity of e. Honolulu 1971-1987 (e.g., E 31:118, 34:85, 35:54, 38:105, 41:120). Reported Honolulu Christmas Count 1973 (3) and 1974 (1). One also reported Pearl Harbor, O'ahu, Oct 1971 (E 32:55). 10 reported from Kona, Hawai'i I, Jun 1994 may have been of Burrowing Parrots (above). One with Rose-ringed Parakeets flying over Kapaia, Kaua'i 13 Oct 2015. Also known as Black-headed Conure or Black-hooded Parakeet.

Jandaya Parakeet (Aratinga jandaya). Escape observed Diamond Head, O'ahu, 2 Jun 1974 (E 35:54).

Blue-crowned Parakeet (Thectocercus acuticaudata). One reported accompanying flock of Red-crowned Parrots on O'ahu at least Nov 1986-Jun 1988. One reported downtown Honolulu 15 Mar 1999 probably a separate bird and one reported nesting with Red-masked Parakeet and producing hybrids in Honolulu in Oct 2004-2006. Up to 15 reported flying freely around Turtle Bay Resort, O'ahu Feb 2012 through 2016.

Scarlet-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga wagleri). Escapes of this species possibly all or part of flock observed in vicinity of Kona, Hawai'i I, 1988-2003; see Red-masked Parakeet for details.

Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna). Escapes reported South Point, Hawai'i I, 8 Apr 2002 ; Kaneohe, O'ahu, 24 Dec 2005; and above Lanikai 29 Mar 2915. Unidentified macaws also reported on O'ahu in upper Manoa Valley May 1971 (E 32:27) and Dec 1972 (E 33:84), and on Kaua'i at Kekaha Apr 1995 and Kokee SP Apr 1996.

Military Macaw (Ara militaris). One reported during Pu'u o Kaka'e Christmas Count week, Maui, 1991.

Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao). Also known in Hawaii as Red-and-blue Macaw. At least two escapes in Honolulu reported by Caum (1933 - as "Macrocercus macao"). Two Scarlet Mcaws owned by Queen Lili'uokalani were shipped to Parker Ranch, Hawai'i I, after her death in 1917 and allowed free range there through 1948, when they were shipped back to the Honolulu Zoo (Dibben-Young 2011). Two reported Kailua Beach Park, O'ahu 17 Oct 2012.

Eclectus Parrot (Eclectus roratus). Escape from local theme park reported at Lyon Arboretum in upper Manoa Valley 17 Dec 1972 (E 33:82) and 1-2 occasionally reported there in 1996-2016. Reported Honolulu Christmas Count 1972 (1) and 2003 (1). Two reported near Anahola, Kaua'i, 20 Oct 1999.

Plum-headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala). One collected Honolulu 24 Oct 1992 (BPBM 178831).

Red-crowned Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandia). One collected, Honolulu, fall 1990 (BPBM 178566).

Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulates). Pair reported released on Midway Apr 1931 and observed daily through at least Oct 1931. Escapes reported from Honolulu by Caum (1933) and considered a good candidate to become established by Caum and Bryan (1958). Numerous additional escapes reported from O'ahu through mid 2010s (e.g., Munro 1944, Berger 1972, 1981; E 27:29, 31:71, 35:54, 44:89), including in native forests (Shallenberger and Vaughn 1978); many others likely unreported. Reported Honolulu Christmas Count 1970 (3) and 1973 (2). One reported Pu'unene, Maui, May 2002. Often referred to as Grass or Shell parakeet.

Rosy-faced Lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Also known in Hawaii as Peach-faced or Red-faced lovebird. Numerous escapes reported from Kaua'i, O'ahu, Maui, and Hawai'i I from 1973 through the 2000s (e.g., BPBM 183519, 183778; USNM 575714; E 14:26, 34:89, 35:54). During early-mid 2010s observations increased substantially, especially on Maui, where 50+ documented in Kihei area in Mar-Dec 2012 were reportedly present since 2005. Numbers and range of occurrence in Kihei and on Maui increased rapidly through 2016, with observations spreading as far as Makena (by Feb 2014), Haiku (May 2014), Wailea (Jul 2015), La Perouse Bay (Sep 2015), Olinda (Feb 2016), and Kula (Aug 2016); species perhaps becoming established on Maui. Also in 2010-2016 Rosy-faced Lovebirds were found on Kaua'i at Kaumakani (4-6 in Sep 2010) and Niumalu Park (1-2 in Sep-Oct 2016); on O'ahu near Turtle Bay Resort (up to 5 in 2015) and Honolulu (2 in Aug 2016); and on Hawai'i I at Waikoloa (up to 13 and nesting recorded in Dec 2014 through 2016).

Yellow-collared Lovebird (Agopornis personatus). Single escapes reported Magic Island (Oct 1981) and Kalihi (Sep 1984), O'ahu.

Gray Parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Escape observed above Kona, Hawai'i I, Oct-Nov 1993.

Meyer Parrot (Poicephalus meyeri). Escape reported Haena, Kaua'i, 27 May 1993.

Senegal Parrot (Poicephalus senegalus). Escaped singles or pairs reported on O'ahu (Honolulu in 1984, 1992, 1995; e.g., E 45:84), Kaua'i (Wailua in 1988 and Haena in 1993), and Hawai'i I (Hilo, 1996-1999). One tentatively identified free-flying on Sand I, Midway, 31 Dec 1994-10 Jan 1995.

CORVIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Red-billed Blue Magpie (Urocissa erythroryncha). 1-3 escapes from Kahalu'u Valley, O'ahu, reported Ulupau Head Mar 1967 (Berger 1972, 1981; E 27:113). One quarantined by DOFAW May 1968 in Kaneohe. Seven reported Kanaha Valley Apr 1970 of which one collected 24 Apr (BPBM 178809) and remaining reported collected by DOFAW (Berger 1972, 1981; possibly including BPBM 145831-833). Considered established by Berger (1972, 1981) and illustrated by Berger (1977); not considered established by Pyle (1977-2002) or AOU (1983, 1998).


Dark-throated Oriole (Oriolus xantornus). One or more escapes reported Kailua and Kaneohe, O'ahu, Feb-Mar 2000 (E 60:22).

Black-naped Oriole (Oriolus chinensis). Escapes of this genus, probably of this species, reported Kailua, O'ahu, 11 Dec 1994 (captured and quarantined) and Jan-Feb 2000.

RHIPIDURIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Willie-wagtail (Rhipidura leucophrys). Fourteen from Australia reportedly released by HBAF near Wailupe, O'ahu in 1926 (Caum 1933, Swedberg 1967a; HFA 23:2, 23:49; HBAF report for year ending 1926:55-56). Additional releases reported by private individuals before Hui Manu established, ~1929 (E 21:26). Possibly established around Waialae by 1933 (Caum 1933). One reported near Koko Head in 1937 (Munro 1944; E 7:12). 


Magpie-Lark (Grallina cyanoleuca). Reported introduced by HBAF to Kau'ai and O'ahu in 1922-1929 by Thrum (1928, as "Pewee Lark") and Caum (1933, as "G. picata"). Releases by HBAF reported Parker Ranch, Hawai'i I, Jun 1922 (6 birds, reported breeding by 1925) and 20 birds to Waialea Ranch, O'ahu Jul 1924 (Swedberg 1967a; HBAF reports for year ending 1924, includes illustration). Munro (1944) describes habits, suggesting persistence through 1930s.

ALAUDIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

[Mongolian Lark (Melancocorypha mongolica). Possibly never imported to Hawaii (see Eurasian Skylark). Unknown number reported released by private individuals on Kaua'i in 1898-1914 and becoming well established by 1933 (Caum 1933, Bryan 1958), but Caum may have been referring to Eurasian Skylark. Subsequent reports of Mongolian Lark (Northwood 1940; Bryan 1958; Swedberg 1967a; Berger 1972, 1981) based only on Caum (1933).] 

PARIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

[Great Tit (Parus major). Rumors of introductions in 1905 and perhaps prior apparently refer to Varied Tit (Caum 1933).]

PYCNONOTIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

White-cheeked Bulbul (Pycnonotus leocogenys). Poorly documented report of release on Kaua'i by private individuals <1930 (Swedberg 1967b), probably late 1920s.


Asian Fairy-bluebird (Irena puella). Escape observed outside Waimea Falls State Park, O'ahu, 21 Jan 1993; recaptured by owner-aviculturist following day.


Sunbird sp. 28 reported imported from Malacca and released in Makiki, O'ahu 1938-1939 (E 31:27). Most likely species Ruby-cheeked Sunbird (Chalcoparia singalensis) or Plain-throated Sunbird (Antreptes malacensis).

TIMALIIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

White-crested Laughingthrush (Garrulax leucolophus). Escaped pair reported breeding on w. slope of Diamond Head, O'ahu, 1969 (Berger 1972; E 30:76), and Honolulu and Pearl Harbor 1972-1973 (Berger 1981, 1983).

Black-throated Laughingthrush (Ianthocincla chinensis). A few released by private individuals on Kaua'i in 1931 (Caum 1933, under "Dryonastes chinensis") and numbers reportedly increasing after release (Munro 1944). Three reported (as "Peko Thrush") upper Waialae Valley 1941 (E 2:52). Five unidentified Garrulax laughingthrushes also imported to O'ahu in 1928 (Swedberg 1967a).

Buffy Laughingthrush (Ianthocincla berthemyi). See account under Hypothetical list.

MUSCICAPIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Oriental Magpie-Robin (Copsychus saularis). Frequently known in Hawaii as Magpie Robin, Dyal, or Dyal Thrush. Pair of subspecies C.s. prosthopellus reportedly released by a private individual on Kaua'i in 1922 and some of same subspecies released by Hui Manu on O'ahu in 1932 (Caum 1933). Further releases in 1933-1939 (e.g., 16 in Honolulu 15 Nov 1935) and poorly documented releases in 1950 (Bryan 1958, Peterson 1961, Swedberg 1967a; PoP 49[12]:29). Many sporadic reports from Kaua'i and O'ahu through 1980s; most uncertain (e.g. Berger 1972, 1981; AOU 1983, 1998; E 11:24, 11:30, 15:9, 19:52-53, 22:5, 28:44, 32:17) and/or could pertain to White-rumped Shama but better-documented observations include one near Wahiawa 9 Jul 1976 (E 37:47; full description on file, BPBM) and two feeding chick at nest at Hanalei, Kaua'i, 8 Aug 1989 (E 50:92). Reported as established by HAS (1959) and Peterson (1961), and as late as 1974 (E 34:117); illustrated by Berger (1977).

Blue-and-white Flycatcher (Cyanoptila cyanomelana). Commonly referred to in Hawaii as Japanese Bluebird or O-ruri-cho. Unknown numbers released on O'ahu by HBAF in 1929 and "large numbers" by the Hui Manu at unknown times during 1929-1938 and perhaps 1940 (Caum 1933, Swedberg 1967a; PoP 49[12]:29; E 31:26). Reported several locations n. and w. of Honolulu and nesting 1937-1943 (Northwood 1940; E 3:43, 4:7, 31:26), perhaps 1950 (E 11:30); considered probably established by Bryan (1941) but not established by Munro (1944). A report from Manoa Valley 1958 (E 18:53-54), probably pertaining to White-rumped Shama, likely the basis for inclusion as established by Bryan (1958) and HAS (1959). 109 individuals also reported released at various locations around Hawai'i I 26 Jun 1937 (E 36:43; PoP 49[1]:7).

Japanese Robin (Larvivora akahige). Unknown numbers reported by Caum (1933, under Luscinia akahige) released on O'ahu by HBAF in 1929 and Hui Manu in 1930-1931; further releases by Hui Manu in 1930s possible (Swedberg 1967a; PoP 49[12]:29, 54:13-15; E 31:26, 35:62). Reported possibly established on O'ahu by Bryan (1941) and established by Munro (1944).

Ryukyu Robin (Larvivora komadori). Unknown numbers of nominate subspecies reported released by Hui Manu in 1931-1932 (Bryan 1958, Swedberg 1967a; PoP 49[12]:29).

Narcissus Flycatcher (Ficedula narcissina). Reported on O'ahu in 1929 by Munro (Long 1981).

STURNIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Common Hill Myna (Gracula religiosa). Three reported escaped from pet shop in e. Honolulu about 1960 (E 26:61). Up to 12 reported upper Manoa Valley and nearby locations 1960s-Apr 1994 (e.g., HAS 1967-1971; Berger 1972, 1981; E 26:61, 89, 110-111) and considered established by Berger (1972, 1981) but population augmentation by breeding (as opposed to additional releases) never established (AOU 1998; E 38:85, 39:95) and not added to Hawaii Checklist by Pyle (1977-1992). Up to 7 reported Honolulu Christmas Count 1966 to 1969. Three reported collected by DoFAW in mid 1970s (specimens not at BPBM), others reported captured for removal in 1983 (E 44:103), and three more collected or found dead in 1985-1994 (BPBM specimens). Additional suspected escapes reported from O'ahu, at Mokuleia Jun 1967 (E 28:23), Pearl City Jan 1976 (E 36:115), near Kahuku 25 Sep 1982 (3 birds), in upper Manoa Valley Jan 2003 (likely not part of previous introduction), and at Camp Smith near Aiea Aug 2009.

European Starling (Sturna vulgaris). See account from Hypothetical Checklist.

Black-collared Starling (Gracupica nigricollis). Escape collected Kaneohe 25 Apr 1969 (Berger 1972; BPBM 178808).

Bali Myna (Leucospar rothschildi). Escape reported (also as "Rothschild's Starling") downtown Honolulu 1975-1979 (Berger 1981; E 37:149, 39:19; HRBP 0038-0039); found dead 20 Sep 1979.

THRAUPIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Red-cowled Cardinal (Paroaria dominicana). Unknown number reported released with a shipment of Red-crested Cardinals to O'ahu by the Hui Manu in 1931 (Caum 1933, as "Pope Cardinal, P. larvata"; see also E 3:9-10, 31:26; PoP 54:13-15). Listed by Long (1981) as introduced O'ahu 1965, apparently confusing report of Red-capped Cardinal (below). Reported Pu'u Wa'a Wa'a Ranch, Hawai'i I, May 1966-Dec 1967 (Swedberg 1967a; E 28:107); perhaps may refer to misidentified Yellow-billed Cardinals.

Red-capped Cardinal (Paroraria gularis). 1-2 escapes reported Moanalua area Mar-Apr 1965 (E 28:101). See also Red-cowled Cardinal (above).

Yellow Cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata). Escapes with other cagebirds reported w. slope of Diamond Head, O'ahu, Oct 1965 (E 26:54 and 27:29, as "Green Cardinal") and one reported Lanikai Apr 1969 (Swedberg 1967a). Also reported Pu'u Wa'a Wa'a Ranch, Hawai'i I, Oct 1966 (Swedberg 1967a). Illustrated by Berger (1977).

CARDINALIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

[Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus). Unknown species of grosbeak reported released Pu'u Wa'a Wa'a Ranch, Hawai'i I, 1902 (Hanshaw 1902a, Swedberg 1967; HBAF reports for years ending 1902), likely from San Francisco and possibly this species.]

Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea). Unknown number released on O'ahu by Hui Manu in ~1934-1936 (Bryan 1958, Swedberg 1967a; E 31:26-27; PoP 49[12]:29). 59 reported released various locations on Hawai'i I 15 May 1937 (E 36:40-44).

Orange-breasted Bunting (Passerina leclancherii). Also known in Hawaii as Mexican Butterfly Bunting and Leclancher's Bunting among other names. Over 425 pairs reported released by Hui Manu around Honolulu and in Kaneohe, O'ahu, 1941-1950 (Bryan 1958, Swedberg 1967a; E 7:68, 13:25, 37:19); reported breeding Manoa Valley in 1950 (E 11:30) and listed as occurring in Manoa by HAS (1959). Unknown number reportedly released Olinda, Maui during 1940s (E 13:25).

Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris). Also known in Hawaii as Non-Pareil Buntings. Unknown number released by Hui Manu on O'ahu before 1937 (Bryan 1958, Swedberg 1967a; PoP 49[12]:29), perhaps in 1934-1936 with Indigo Buntings (above). 69 reportedly released in various locations around Hawai'i I, May-Jun 1937 (E 36:40-44).

ICTERIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Red-breasted Blackbird (Sturnella militaris). A few individuals reported liberated by a private individual on Kaua'i in 1931 (Caum 1933, under "Military Starling, Troupialis militaris"). Reported seen in 1936 (Munro 1944).

Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus). See account from Hypothetical List.

FINGILLIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

White-rumped Seedeater (Serinus leucopygius). Known in Hawaii as Gray Singing-Finch, White-rumped Serin, or Gray Canary. Twelve first reported with other released cage birds on w. slopes of Diamond Head Oct 1965 (Swedberg 1967a; E 26:54); reported nesting. Up to 30+ reported in Diamond Head area Mar 1966 (E 26:112) and 37 in Dec 1967 (E 28:68, 70). Numbers declined until 1-4 last seen in Oct 1976 (E 38:05). 3-37 reported each year Honolulu Christmas Count 1965-1971. Not considered established by HAS (1967-1978). Twenty reported with other released cage birds P'uu Wa'a Wa'a Ranch, Hawai'i I, May 1966 (Swedberg 1967a).


Southern Masked-Weaver (Ploceus velatus). Unknown number of subspecies P.v. vitellinus reported with other released cage birds P'uu Wa'a Wa'a Ranch, Hawai'i I, Aug 1966 (Swedberg 1967a).

Baya Weaver (Ploceus philippinus). Reported released with other cage birds and nesting in coconut palms on the w. slopes of Diamond Head, O'ahu, Oct 1965 (E 26 54).

Northern Red Bishop (Euplectis franciscanis). Also know as Orange Bishop. Escaped or released males were reported on O'ahu above Pearl Harbor Sep 1965 (E 26:41), Waipi'o Peninsula Oct 1973 (E 34:81), in the Kaneohe vicinity Dec 1991-Jul 1996 (HRBP 1333), and on the Aliamanu Military Base near Halawa, O'ahu 24 Aug 2011 (HRBP 6787); on Hawai'i I one was near Pepe'ekeo, Hawai'i I 28 Jul 2014 (HRBP 6788). Many additional reports of "Red Bishops" may pertain to either Northern or Southern (below) Red Bishops due to nomenclatural and identification uncertainties (these were formerly considered a subspecies; cf. Berger 1972, 1981); e.g., Northern Red Bishops may also have been with Southern Red Bishops in Diamond Head area in mid 1960s.

Southern Red Bishop (Euplectis orix). Up to four first reported on w. slopes of Diamond Head, O'ahu, Jul-Aug 1964 (E 25:24) but some identification confusion with Northern Red Bishop (above; cf. Garrett 1998b). Up to 9 males (E 30:70, 75), probably primarily Southern Red Bishops, reported in Diamond Head area Oct 1965-Jul 1988 (one collected 1970; BPBM 178807), including every year on Honolulu Christmas Count 1965-1973 (1-9 individuals). 1-2 reported elsewhere on O'ahu at Waipio Peninsula Sep 1976 (E 38:5), Halawa Valley Sep 1976, and Aina Haina Jan 1994. Unknown number reported with other cage birds at P'uu Wa'a Wa'a Ranch, Hawai'i I, Aug 1966 (Swedberg 1967a).

Yellow-crowned Bishop (Euplectis afer). Also known in Hawaii as Napoleon Weaver. 1-3 males reported with Red Bishops (below) in Diamond Head area, O'ahu, Oct 1965-Nov 1979 (e.g., E 26:54, 29:16, 38:106). Reported on Honolulu Christmas Count four times 1966-1972. Males also reported on O'ahu at Waipi'o Peninsula Oct 1976 (E 38:5), Oct 1984, and Oct 1987; and at Kahuku Aug 1986. One male reported P'uu Wa'a Wa'a Ranch, Hawai'i I, Aug 1966 (Swedberg 1967a).

ESTRILDIDAE (See also Primary Checklist)

Southern Cordonbleu (Uraeginthus angolensis). Frequently referred to in Hawaii as Blue-headed or Blue-breasted Cordonbleu. Up to 12 reported w. slope of Diamond Head Dec 1969 (first identified as cyanocephalus E 30:77-78, later as angolensis, E 35:90) and other males occasionally through Oct 1977 (HAS 1975-1978; E 36: 92, 129, 145-146). One collected Diamond Head 10 Sep 1970 (BPBM 178806). Illustrated by Berger (1977, 1981). See also Red-cheeked Cordonbleu.

Red-cheeked Cordonbleu (Uraeginthus bengalus). See account from Hypothetical List.

Blue-capped Cordonbleu (Uraeginthus cyanocephalus). Twelve reported w. slope of Diamond Head Dec 1969 (E 30:77-78; identified later as angolensis, E 35:90). Males reported sporadically through 1975 (E 36:129, 145-146) but status unclear due to identification uncertainties (E 35:90). Illustrated by Berger (1977, 1981). See also Red-cheeked Cordonbleu.

Black-rumped Waxbill (Estrilda troglodytes). See account from Hypothetical List.

[Red-billed Firefinch (Lagonosticta senegala). Up to 60 "firefinches" reported in Diamond Head area, O'ahu, and on Hawai'i I possibly this species (see African Firefinch; see below).]

African Firefinch (Lagonosticta rubricata). Up to 60 "Firefinches" (E 26-35) or "African Firefinches" (E 36-40) observed w. slope of Diamond Head, O'ahu, Oct 1965-Dec 1970 (e.g., E 26:54, 26:112, 29:52) and once in Aina Haina (E 27:31). Reported Honolulu Christmas Count 1965 (30) to 1970 (2). Probably this species (cf. AOU 1998), although apparently referred to Red-billed Firefinch (L. senegala) without comment by Berger (1972, 1981) and Blake (1975). Twelve pair of rubricata reported P'uu Wa'a Wa'a Ranch, Hawai'i I, Aug 1966 (Swedberg 1967a).

Diamond Firetail (Stagonopleura guttata). One reported 26 Dec 1966 on Honolulu Christmas Count (E 27:71, 73).

Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Escapes reported Kilauea Point, Kaua'i Nov 2001, Kailua, O'ahu, Jun 2002, and Hilo, Hawai'i I, Apr 2006. Others of this common cage bird likely unreported.

[Indian Silverbill (Euodice malabarica). Specimen collected <1878 sent to Sclater (1878) by S. Baird for identification; "probably" this species according to Sclater. The specimen cannot be located. Perhaps brought by W. Hillebrand from Calcutta in 1866 (see Common Myna).]

White-rumped Munia (Lonchura striata). 2-6 escapes of "Bengalese variety" (derivative of L.s. swinhoei) reported Puna, Hawai'i I, Feb-Mar 2002.

Tricolored Munia (Lonchura malacca). Formerly considered conspecific with Chestnut Munia; 1-4 reported with Chestnut Munias at Waipio Peninsula, O'ahu, Mar 1967-Oct 1969 (e.g. E 27:106, 30:38, 30:47) and one again in Mar 1977 (E 38:56). One reported several dates Waikiki Aquarium May 1970 (Berger 1972, 1981); illustrated by Berger (1977). Several tentatively identified near Wailuku. Maui, Nov 2009.

Pin-tailed Whydah (Vidua macroura). Up to 18 reported on O'ahu in Diamond Head vicinity Jun 1962-Aug 1984 (e.g., HAS 1971-1986; Berger 1972, 1981; E 23:22, 29:8, 34:16-17, 35:6, 35:66, 35:84, 37:147, 39:75), including every year on Honolulu Christmas Count 1969-1977 (1-18 individuals); also Aiea (E 30:96) and Ewa Beach (E 34:16-17). Probably breeding (E 37:16-17) and considered established by Berger (1972, 1981) and Pyle (1977-1979) but removed by Pyle (1983) and considered never established by AOU (1983, 1998). Decline of waxbill hosts of this nest parasite during 1970s likely prevented supportable populations of whydahs (Berger 1981).

Village Indigobird (Vidua chalybeata). One reported (as "Senegal Combassou, Hypochera chalybeata") on Honolulu Christmas Count 1969 (E 30:71, 74).

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Literature Cited


Version 2 completed Jan 2017 and will not be updated for content until future versions are posted (typos and bad links will be fixed). Comments, errors, typos, bad links, updated information, any other suggestions: Please contact Peter Pyle at

Citation: Pyle, R.L., and P. Pyle. 2017. The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands: Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status. B.P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI, U.S.A. Version 2 (1 January 2017)

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