The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands:
Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status

Robert L. Pyle and Peter Pyle

Northwestern Hawaiian Island Checklist

The following checklist includes 181 bird species documented as occurring in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, as recorded on each island or island group, either naturally or through introduction and establishment of a viable breeding population for at least 15 years. See Primary Checklist for more information. Pelagic records are recorded for island groups if the species was seen from land or during a one-day boat trip from the island; 12 species, listed below, have been recorded in Northwestern Hawaiian Island waters from research vessels but not on or from any island or island group.

R - Resident (native)
N - Naturalized (non-native), established and breeding
n - Naturalized (non-native), visitor from other island or island group
B - Breeding Visitor
M - Migrant through the islands (some may winter) or non-breeding visitor (often seabirds)
W - Winter Resident (some may migrate through the islands)
V - Vagrant
X - Extinct
x - Extirpated from that island or island group (Resident or Naturalized species)

For species of breeding seabirds, click on the common name to access population size estimates.


ANATIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Greater White-fronted Goose V V   V     V    
Emperor Goose V V   V          
Snow Goose   V              
Brant     V V     V    
Cackling Goose V V     V        
Tundra Swan   V              
Gadwall   W         W    
Falcated Duck   V              
Eurasian Wigeon W W   W W   W    
American Wigeon W W     W        
Mallard W W     W   W    
Laysan Duck       R R        
Blue-winged Teal   V   V          
Northern Shoveler W W     W   W    
Northern Pintail W W W W W   W   W
Garganey W W     W   W    
Green-winged Teal W W     W   W    
Canvasback   V     V        
Common Pochard   V              
Ring-necked Duck         V        
Tufted Duck V V         V    
Greater Scaup W W     W        
Lesser Scaup   W     W        
Harlequin Duck   V     V        
Black Scoter   V              
Long-tailed Duck   V              
Bufflehead W W     W        
Common Goldeneye         V        
Red-breasted Merganser         V        
PODICIPEDIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Eared Grebe         V        
DIOMEDEIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Shy Albatross   V              
Laysan Albatross B B B B B M B B B
Black-footed Albatross B B B B B   B B B
Short-tailed Albatross M M M   M        
PROCELLARIIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Northern Fulmar W W W       W    
Kermadec Petrel M                
Herald Petrel             M    
Murphy Petrel M           M    
Mottled Petrel                  
Juan Fernandez Petrel                  
Hawaiian Petrel                  
White-necked Petrel                  
Bonin Petrel B B B B B   B    
Black-winged Petrel                  
Cook Petrel         M        
Stejneger Petrel                  
Pycroft Petrel                  
Bulwer Petrel B B B B B B B B B
Jouanin Petrel   V   V          
Streaked Shearwater         V        
Flesh-footed Shearwater   M              
Wedge-tailed Shearwater B B B B B B B B B
Buller Shearwater   M              
Sooty Shearwater M M M M M   M    
Short-tailed Shearwater   M              
Christmas Shearwater B B B B B   B M B
Newell Shearwater   M              
HYDROBATIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Wilson Storm-Petrel                  
Leach Storm-Petrel W W              
Band-rumped Storm-Petrel                  
Tristram Storm-Petrel B B B M B   B M B
PHAETHONTIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
White-tailed Tropicbird M B     M   M   M
Red-billed Tropicbird             V   V
Red-tailed Tropicbird B B B B B B B B B
SULIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Masked Booby B B B B B B B B B
Nazca Booby   V         V    
Brown Booby B B B B B B B B B
Red-footed Booby B B B B B M B B B
PHALACROCORACIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Pelagic Cormorant   V     V        
FREGATIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Great Frigatebird B B B B B M B B B
Lesser Frigatebird M M     B   B    
ARDEIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Great Blue Heron             V    
Cattle Egret n V, n n n n n n n n
Black-crowned Night-Heron V V         V    
ACCIPITRIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Osprey   W         W    
Black Kite   V              
Steller Sea-Eagle V V         V    
Northern Harrier   V     V   V    
Gray Frog-Hawk V                
Rough-legged Hawk   V     V        
FALCONIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Merlin   V              
Peregrine Falcon M W   M W   W    
RALLIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Laysan Rail   X     X        
Common Moorhen   V              
Hawaiian Coot V V V   V   V    
CHARADRIIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Black-bellied Plover M M   M W   M    
Pacific Golden-Plover W W W W W M W W W
Lesser Sand-Plover   V   V          
Common Ringed Plover   V              
Semipalmated Plover   W   M W   W    
Eurasian Dotterel V                
RECURVIROSTRIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Black-winged Stilt V V              
Black-necked Stilt                 V
SCOLOPACIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Spotted Sandpiper             V    
Gray-tailed Tattler   V              
Wandering Tattler W W W W W W W W W
Greater Yellowlegs   V     V        
Lesser Yellowlegs M M     M   M    
Marsh Sandpiper   V              
Wood Sandpiper V V              
Whimbrel   W     W   M    
Bristle-thighed Curlew W W W W W   W W W
Far Eastern Curlew         V   V    
Bar-tailed Godwit M M   M W   M    
Marbled Godwit         V        
Ruddy Turnstone W W W W W M W W W
Red Knot   V V   V        
Sanderling M M M M W   M M  
Western Sandpiper V V     V   V    
Red-necked Stint V                
Little Stint V                
Long-toed Stint   V              
Baird Sandpiper   V     V        
Pectoral Sandpiper M M     M   M    
Sharp-tailed Sandpiper M M M M M   M    
Dunlin W W W   W   W    
Curlew Sandpiper         V        
Buff-breasted Sandpiper V V         V    
Ruff M M M M     M    
Short-billed Dowitcher V V     V        
Long-billed Dowitcher W W     W   W    
Common Snipe V                
Pin-tailed Snipe V                
Wilson Phalarope             V    
Red-necked Phalarope         V        
Red Phalarope W W W   W        
LARIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Black-legged Kittiwake V V V   V   V    
Bonaparte Gull   V     V   V    
Black-headed Gull   V              
Laughing Gull   V     V   V V  
Franklin Gull   M     M   M    
Mew Gull V                
Ring-billed Gull     V   V        
Herring Gull W W W W W   W    
Slaty-backed Gull W W     V        
Glaucous-winged Gull W W W W W   W W  
Glaucous Gull V V         V    
Brown Noddy B B B B B B B B B
Black Noddy B B B B B B B B B
Blue-gray Noddy         V B B B B
White Tern B B B B B B B B B
Sooty Tern B B B B B B B B B
Gray-backed Tern B B B B B B B B B
Little Tern M B B   M   M    
Least Tern   B     M   M    
Black Tern V V     V        
Common Tern V       V   V    
Arctic Tern M M   M          
Great Crested Tern             V    
STERCORARAIIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
South Polar Skua                  
Pomarine Jaeger   W     W   M    
Parasitic Jaeger                  
Long-tailed Jaeger                  
ALCIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Parakeet Auklet V V V            
Horned Puffin V V V   V        
COLUMBIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Rock Pigeon   x         n   n
CUCULIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Common/Oriental Cuckoo   V              
Yellow-billed Cuckoo         V        
STRIGIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Short-eared Owl W W     W   W    
CAPRIMULGIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Common Nighthawk             V    
APODIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Fork-tailed Swift   V              
ALAUDIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Sky Lark V           n    
HIRUNDIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Cliff Swallow             V    
Barn Swallow V V              
SYLVIIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Millerbird         x       R
TURDIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Eyebrowed Thrush   V              
MIMIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Northern Mockingbird             n n n
STURNIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Common Myna   N              
MOTACILLIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Olive-backed Pipit V                
Red-throated Pipit V                
American Pipit V                
EMBERIZIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Savannah Sparrow V           V    
Snow Bunting V V         V    
CARDINALIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
Northern Cardinal                 n
FRINGILLIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
House Finch   n         n   n
Common Redpoll V V              
Common Canary   N              
Laysan Finch   x N   R        
Nihoa Finch                 R
'Apapane         x        
PASSERIDAE
COMMON NAME Kure Midway P & H Lisianski Laysan G. P. FFS Necker Nihoa
House Sparrow n n         n    
 
TOTAL SPECIES 90 125 42 42 92 18 86 26 32

Version 1 completed Dec 2009 and will not be updated for content until Version 2 is posted (typos and bad links may be fixed). Plans are to complete Version 2 sometime in 2011-2013, with further updated versions to be completed every 2-4 years thereafter. Comments, errors, typos, bad links, updated information, any other suggestions: Please contact Peter Pyle at ppyle@bishopmuseum.org.

Citation: Pyle, R.L., and P. Pyle. 2009. The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands: Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status. B.P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI, U.S.A. Version 1 (31 December 2009) http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/birds/rlp-monograph

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